From: "Mohammed Yusuf Jaffer"   

Cc: zanzinet

Subject: Re:Iraqi showdown

Date: Fri, 14 Nov 1997 05:36:35 PST





If the Holy Prophet (saw) left the matter of choosing Caliphs to his followers to choose themselves so someone can take his place, then what better ways of selections or elections to follow them as we are finding many ways? Which is the right and best way to establish Khalifa (Caliphate)?


According to our brother Ahlel Sunnah belief, the choice of Khilafa is in the hand of Ummah not Allah and His Holy Prophet (s.a.w). However, if we go through history, we find that they were contradicting ways to select Khalifa. Just let us see how the Ahle Sunnah struggled to select a worldly caliph :


1) The first way of selection was on Saqifa with only few people without aware of the majority of the Muslim. They choose one among themselves and later on one of them who was Omar, called this action as EVIL ONE AND WHOEVER REPEAT IT SHOULD BE KILLED, was this the right way of selecting a Caliph?


2) The selection of the Second Caliph of Omar by individual person of the first Caliph Abu Bakr which also rejected by the second Caliph himself because he did not repeated the same way instead he brought a new way. Was this the right way to choose a Caliph?


3) The third way was the six candidates chosen by Omar who were supposed to accept to follow Book of Allah, Sunnah of the Prophet (s.a.w) and seerah (ways) of the first two Caliphs. This one was also rejected by Imam Ali (a.s). Was this the right way to choose a Caliph?


4) The way of selecting a Caliph was by forcing Imam Ali (a.s) to accept it by Ummah after the death of Uthman. Was this the right way to choose a Caliph?


5) The fifth way by taking the Khilafa by force the way Muawiya did to Imam Hassan (a.s). Was this the right way to choose a Caliph?


6) The sixth way of selecting a Caliph was by nomination of the evil person, Yazid through inheritance from father to son. Was this the right way to choose a Caliph?


7) The seventh way was by fighting between two Abasside brothers for sake of Khilafa. Was this the right way to choose a Caliph?


So according to you the Holy Prophet (s.a.w) was the most successful person and yet his Ummah did not know how to select RIGHT successor. And you know what was the end of this worldly Caliphate, Kamal Atatruk threw it into Black Sea. Poor people, if the Holy Prophet (s.a.w) was the most successful one, how it comes now you are without a Caliph?


Holy Prophet (saw) who was the last prophet and Islam is the completed religion, How possible he would allow those Arabs who still on their heads exists the impurities of the Ignorance and even at the last days of his life they strongly opposed him? It is not enough that we observe drunkards and butchers of the people holding the seat of caliphates of the Holy Prophet (saw), read history about the Caliphates of Bani and Bani Abbas Ummaya!




Assalamu alaikum brother Pejman


I would like to thank you Brother Pejman for doing your research regarding the nomination of Caliph. I too, did my research in my way, I hope it might add and help for your research.


To start with, I would say let us:


put aside those MUTTAWATIR Hadith of Ghadir


put aside those MUTTAWATIR Hadith of Thaqalain


put aside those MUTTAWATIR Hadith of Madinatul Ilm


put aside those MUTTAWATIR Hadith of Manzilat


put aside those Hadith of Daar


put aside Ayat of Wilaya


put aside Ayat of Tat-heer


put aside Ayat of Mubahila


put aside Ayat of Mawadat


put aside Ayat of  Salawat


put aside Ayat of Tabligh and so on. Let us concentrate on some of Hadiths from Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim and Tarikh Tabari which I believe will give us better picture.



Let us start with the Tradition from the book of the Sahih Muslim :


Book 31, Number 5879:

Narrated Aisha:

Allah's Messenger (peace_be_upon_him) in his (last) illness asked me to call  AbuBakr, her father, and her brother too, so that he might write a document for he feared that someone else might be desirous (of succeeding him) and that some claimant may say: I have better claim to it, whereas Allah and the Faithful do not substantiate the claim of anyone but that of AbuBakr.



According to this Hadith, it portrays the Holy Prophet (s.a.w) as a person who was useless and did not have any proper strategic!! How is it possible such an IMPORTANT ISSUE OF KHILAFA, SIGNIFICANT PERSON of the one who was receiving Revelation from Allah, the likeness of our Holy Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w) TELLING THIS ISSUE OF KHILAFA TO THEM ONLY that Aisha and her brother ONLY??!! For this ISSUE OF KHILAFA RELATED TO THESE TWO PEOPLE ONLY NOT THE WHOLE UMMAT OF ISLAM? Secondly, how people can trust Aisha and her brother that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w) certainly INFORMED THEM ONLY the news of their Father would be Khalifa? Dear Readers, IS IT TRUE THAT THE HOLY PROPHET (S.A.W) WOULD EXPLAIN THE ISSUE OF KHILAFA TO THESE TWO PEOPLE ONLY, AFTERWARD THIS KHALIFA SHOULD BE THEIR FATHER?



If we look at another Tradition in Sahih Bukhari we find different type of Hadith :



Volume 9, Book 89, Number 325:

 Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Umar:


     It was said to 'Umar, "Will you appoint your successor?" Umar said, "If I APPOINT A CALIPH (as my SUCCESSOR) it is  true that somebody who was better than I (i.e., Abu Bakr) DID SO, and if I LEAVE THE MATTER UNDECIDED, it is true that somebody WHO WAS BETTER THAN I (i.e., Allah's Apostle) DID SO. ……"


We can understand from the words of Omar that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w) did not select any Khalifa before he died, and according to Aisha, he selected her Father. Now shall we follow Omar words or Aisha, how it contradicts? Even worst than this if we examine another hadith from same Bukhari :



Volume 7, Book 70, Number 573:

     Narrated Ibn 'Abbas:


 When Allah's Apostle was on his death-bed and in the house there were some people among whom was 'Umar bin Al- Khattab, the Prophet said, "Come, let me write for you a statement after which you will not go astray." 'Umar said, "The Prophet is seriously ill and you have the Qur'an; so the Book of Allah is enough for us." The people present in the house differed and quarrelled. Some said "Go near so that the Prophet may write for you a statement after which you will not go astray," while the others said as Umar said. When they caused a hue and cry before the Prophet, Allah's Apostle said, "Go away!" Narrated 'Ubaidullah: Ibn 'Abbas used to say, "It was very unfortunate that Allah's Apostle was prevented from writing that statement for them because of their disagreement and noise."



Now Dears Readers, which TRADITIONS shall we follow regarding the ISSUE OF KHILAFA, The Tradition of TWO PEOPLE ONLY (that is Aisha and her brother), The Tradition of Omar that the Prophet (s.a.w) did not elect any Khalifa OR this “RAZIYATUL YAUMUL KHAMIS (THE DISASTER OF THURSDAY) the Holy Prophet (s.a.w) wanted to remind them of Khilafa or to elect someone in the presence of many of his Companions (Sahaba) and they prevented him???!!!






First let us start with the ELECTION OF THE FIRST CALIPH. Let us listen to Second Caliph what he said about it in Sahih Bukhari :


Volume 8, Book 82, Number 817

     Narrated Ibn 'Abbas:


One should not deceive oneself by saying that the pledge of allegiance given to Abu Bakr was given suddenly and it was successful. No doubt, it was like that, but Allah saved (the people) from ITS EVIL, and there is none among you who has the qualities of Abu Bakr. Remember that WHOEVER GIVES THE PLEDGE OF ALLEGIANCE TO ANYBODY AMONG YOU WITHOUT CONSULTING THE OTHER MUSLIMS, neither that person, nor the person to whom the pledge of allegiance was given, are to be supported, lest THEY BOTH SHOULD BE KILLED.


And no doubt after the death of the Prophet we were informed that the ANSAR DISAGREED WITH US and gathered in  the shed of Bani Sa'da. 'ALI AND ZUBAIR AND WHOEVER WAS WITH THEM, OPPOSED US, while the emigrants gathered with Abu Bakr.


We can summarise as follow:


1)  The Election was SUDDEN and EVIL

2)  They did not Consult other Muslims

3)  Ansar and Ali group opposed them



In another word Omar created THE CONDITIONS AND THE RULES OF THE ELECTION OF KHALIFA of how it should such as :


1) It should not be SUDDEN and EVIL like the way they did in Saqifa.

2) Whoever to be Elected they should Consult Other Muslims.

3) Whoever do not follow his ways BOTH THE GIVER AND THE GIVEN SHOULD BE KILLED.







Now let us look at the Second Election of the Second Caliph


From the book of Tarikh Tabari page 2138-2139 at-Tabari writes:

"Abu Bakr called 'Uthman -when the former was dying-and told him to write an appointment order, and dictated to him: 'In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. This is the order of 'Abdullah ibn Abi Quhafah (i.e., Abu Bakr) to the Muslims. Whereas...' Then he fell unconscious. 'Uthman added the words: 'I appoint 'Umar ibn     al-Khattab as my successor among you.'


"Then Abu Bakr regained his consciousness and told 'Uthman to read the order to him. 'Uthman read it; Abu Bakr said, Allahu Akbar', and was pleased and commented, 'I think you were afraid that people would disagree amongst themselves if I died in that state.' 'Uthman replied, 'Yes.' Abu Bakr said: ' May Allah reward you on behalf of Islam and the Muslims.'  Thus, the appointment letter was completed and Abu Bakr ordered it to be read before the Muslims.




Volume 9, Book 89, Number 325:

     Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Umar:


     It was said to 'Umar, "Will you appoint your successor?" Umar said, "If I APPOINT A CALIPH (as my SUCCESSOR) it is true that somebody who was better than I (i.e., Abu Bakr) DID SO, and if I LEAVE THE MATTER UNDECIDED, it is true that somebody WHO WAS BETTER THAN I (i.e., Allah's Apostle) DID SO.” 



Book 20, Number 4485:


If I WOULD APPOINT MY SUCCESSOR, (I would because) one better than me did so. (He meant Abu Bakr.) If I WOULD LEAVE YOU ALONE, (I would do so because) one better than me, i.e. the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), DID SO. 'Abdullah says: When he mentioned the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) I UNDERSTOOD THAT HE WOULD NOT APPOINT ANYONE AS CALIPH.


We can sumamrise as follow :

1) Omar was chosen by Abu Bakr as a Caliph.

2) There are two ways, one to chose a Caliph and another one without chosing anyone.

3)  There were two people better than Omar, the first one he mentioned is Abu Bakr, and the second one is the Holy Prophet (s.a.w)


We can understand Omar saying as follow :


1) According to Omar, Abu Bakr was better than the Holy Prophet (s.a.w) for two reasons: 

(a) He mentioned the name of Abu Bakr before the name of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w).

(b) Secondly Abu Bakr was much wiser than the Holy Prophet (s.a.w) was because he thought about the future of the Muslim  whereas the Holy Prophet (s.a.w) did not think of it. For this reason he created a consultative committee to elect a Khalifa after  him, as Abdullah (the narrator) understood that way! Also he accepted to be the second Khalifa, otherwise if he thought that  the Holy Prophet (s.a.w) was wiser he would have rejected it.


2) According to the Tradition from Tabari and Omar saying that HE (OMAR) WAS CHOSEN BY ABU BAKR, MUSLIMS WERE JUST INFORMED about it but were not CONSULTED. Therefore BOTH THE GIVER ABU BAKAR AND GIVEN OMAR BREAK OMAR CONDITON AND RULE NUMBER 2.  If we refer to Condition and Rule number 3 they are both to be killed!




I think for today if is enough, otherwise I can continue to show the third way of Election was also a failure!






وَنَجَّيْنَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَكَانُوا يَتَّقُونَ {41:18}

But We delivered those who believed and practised righteousness


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