Subject: Who is the successor of the Prophet (s) ?
Date: Sat, 30 Jan 1999 15:14:40 GMT
Organization: Deja News - The Leader in Internet Discussion
Who is the successor of the Prophet (s)?
Once a friend told me that:
The first khalifa is more knowledgeable, because he
understood that he should assign a person as his successor
to keep the system and community working in order. (It is
well known that Abu Bakr assigned Umar as his successor).
But the Prophet (s) failed to realize this important task
that the Islamic community needs a qualified leader after
him, or perhaps it was not important for the prophet that
who is going to take over the power after him!
Is it possible that the Prophet of Islam who has tried hard
to implement Islam, and tolerated a lot of problems,
disasters, and paid big price to establish Islam in Arabian
peninsula, leaves people without assigning any person to
keep this religion alive after him?! The religion that is to
be the last religion of God for this world; the religion
that was supposed to be for every nation all over the world
both inwardly and outwardly.
What happened that Muslims are in this miserable situation
in the world for centuries?
What happened that the chain of successors/rulers (Ulul-Amr)
has reached to people like King Fahd, King Husain, King
Hasan, Saddam Husain, Husni Mubarak, ...? Something is
Yes, The problem is leadership and Guardianship.
Was this problem not so important for prophet or he didn't
take it serious?
Of course, he did take it serious and he must have assigned
a chain of successors (Caliphs) who where the most qualified
as the head of Islamic state and as the guardian of Shari'ah
Are Allah and His prophet more qualified to assign the
Caliphs, or people?
Is Islam on the basis of democracy (government of people
over people) or on the basis of theocracy (Kingdom of Allah
over the earth)?
The history of Islam testifies that the government after the
death of prophet was neither democratic nor theocratic. Just
a few people gathered in "Saqifah bani Saaedah" and assigned
Abu Bakr as Caliph while Imam Ali (with his
followers) was busy of the burial of the holy prophet in
Is it our choice as to whom should be a Prophet or it is
Can we select Prophet by Shura?
The same goes for assigning the successor of Prophet, for
Allah knows best who is the most qualified for this
position. It seems very strange that a deputy of a chief is
assigned by any person other than him.
Deputy of God (or prophet) is only assigned by God (or
prophet), and it is not people's business! There are many
examples in Quran where Allah states that He is the one who
assigns a successor on the earth. Allah, Exalted He
is, states in Quran:
"O' David, we assigned you as Caliph (successor) on the
earth ..." (Quran 38:26)
"... We have assigned you (Abraham) as Imam (leader) for
people ..."(Quran 2:124)
As we see, Caliph/Imam for the mankind is assigned by Allah.
See also 2:30 (about Adam). Even Prophet Moses, when he
wanted to go to Miqaat, did not ask people to form a Shura
to assign a Caliph for him. Quran tells us that:
(Moses said: "O' Allah) assign me a vizier from my family,
(that is) my brother Aaron (Haroon) ...," (Allah) said: "We
granted your requests, O' Moses." (Quran 20:29-36).
Allah, Exalted, also said: "Surely We gave the book to Moses
and assigned his brother Aaron as his vizier." (Quran
"... And Moses said unto his brother Aaron: Take my place
among the people." (Quran 7:142).
Notice that "Ukhlufni" and "Khalifa" (Caliph) are exactly
from the same root.
In this connection, let us take a look at the following
interesting tradition in Sahih al-Bukhari:
The Messenger of Allah said to Ali: "Your position to me is
like the position of Aaron (Haroon) to Moses, except that
there shall be no Prophet after me"
(1) Sahih al-Bukhari, Arabic-English version, Traditions
(2) Sahih Muslim, Arabic, v4, pp 1870-71
(3) Sunan Ibn Majah, p12
(4) Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v1, p174
(5) al-Khasa'is, by al-Nisa'i, pp 15-16
(6) Mushkil al-Athar, by al-Tahawi, v2, p309
.... and more
The Prophet (PBUH&HF) thereby meant that as Moses had left
behind Aaron to look after his people when he went to Miqaat
(meeting Allah), in the same way he was leaving Ali behind
to look after the affairs of Islam after he met Allah (i.e.,
his death). Let this reminder be food of thought for the
possessors of pure heart and open mind.
The above verses of Quran concerning Aaron show that even
the prophet does not assign his deputy/successor, and it is
rather Allah who does that. Prophet Moses prayed to Allah
and requested that Aaron becomes his deputy, and Allah
approved the suggestion/request of Prophet Moses (AS).
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