TWO MAIN GROUPS OF SAHABA

 
 

 

 

 

FADAK

When the Holy Prophet returned to Medina, Gabriel revealed the following: "And give to the near of kin his due and (to) the needy and the wayfarer, and do not squander wastefully." (17:26)

 

The Holy Prophet pondered the significance of this revelation. Gabriel appeared again and informed him that Allah had decreed: "Let Fadak be given to Fatima." The Holy Prophet called Fatima and said: "Allah has commanded me to bestow Fadak as a gift to you." So he immediately gave possession of Fadak to Fatima.

 

The chief of the commentators, Ahmad Tha'labi in his Kashfu'l-Bayan; Jalalu'd-din Suyuti in his Tafsir, vol. IV, reporting from Hafiz Ibn Mardawiyya; the famous commentator Ahmad Bin Musa (died 352 A.H.) reporting from Abu Sa'id Khadiri and Hakim Abu'l-Qasim Haskani; Ibn Kathir; Imadu'd-din Isma'il; Ibn Umar Damishqi; Faqih-e-Shafi'i in his Ta'rikh, and Sheikh Sulayman Balkhi Hanafi in his Yanabiu'l-Mawadda, ch. 39, reporting from Tafsir-e-Tha'labi, Jam'u'l-Fawa'id and Uyunu'l-Akhbar - all narrate that when the verse "and give to the near of kin his due" was revealed, the Holy Prophet of Allah called Fatima and bestowed the great Fadak upon her as a gift. Accordingly, so long as the Holy Prophet lived, Fadak remained in Fatima's possession. That exalted lady leased the land; its revenue was collected in three installments. Out of this amount she took enough money for food for her and her children and distributed the rest to the poor people of Bani Hashim. After the demise of the Holy Prophet, the officers of the ruling caliph snatched this property from Fatima.

 

Consequently, one finds that all historians and scholars of tafsir, as well as of hadith, relate that Fatima (A.S.) claimed that Fadak was her property and that Abu Baker refuted her, asking her to provide witnesses to support her claim. She brought 'Ali b. Abi Talib and Umm Ayman, but Abu Bakr did not accept their testimony, considering it insufficient. Ibn Hajar admitted this in his al-Sawaيiq al-Muhriqa (page 21) when he reported that Fatima claimed that the Prophet (S.A.W.)  had given her Fadak as a gift but had no witness to her claim except 'Ali and Umm Ayman. Yet their testimony did not meet the stipulated conditions to be considered as sufficient proof.

 

Also Imam Fakhru'd-din Razi in his Tafsir-e-Kabir concerning the claim of Fatima; Yaqut Hamawi in his Mu'ajamu'l-Buldan; Ibn Abi'l-Hadid Mu'tazali in Sharh-e-Nahju'l-Balagha, vol.IV, p. 80, from Abu Bakr Jauhari and the fanatical Ibn Hajar in Sawa'iq-e-Muhriqa, p.21, under the heading Shuhubhat-e-Rafza, VII Shubha, narrate that the first claim of Fatima was that Fadak had been a gift. When her witnesses were rejected, she was much pained and said in anger that she would not talk to Abu Bakr and Umar again.

 

This fact is recorded not only in Shia books, but also in those written by your own prominent ulema. It is recorded in Siratu'l-Halabiyya, p.39, compiled by Ali Bin Burhanu'd-din Halabi Shafi'i (died 1044 A.H.) that at first Fatima remonstrated with Abu Bakr that she owned Fadak and that it had been given to her by the Holy Prophet of Allah. Since witnesses were not available, she was forced to claim her right according to the law of inheritance.

 

 

 

ARGUMENT FROM HADITH 'LA NURIS' -  WE DO NOT LEAVE LEGACIES

 

When Fatima (a.s) was forced to claimed her right according to the law of inheritance, Abu Baker brought new obstacle by declaring that he heard the Holy Prophet say: "We prophets do not leave behind any legacy; whatever we leave as inheritance is charity" (i.e., the property of umma).

 

 

FADAK WAS A GIFT - NOT A LEGACY AND HADITH 'LA NURIS' IS CONCOCTED

The purported hadith is unacceptable, there are many reasons for rejecting this hadith. First, it was not an inheritance, but a gift. 

 

Second, whoever contrived this hadith uttered it without thinking about the words he used. If he had been careful about it, he would never have said: "We prophets do not leave any inheritance," because he would have known that his lying would be exposed by the very wording of this concocted hadith. If he had used the words "I have not left behind any legacy," his attempted hadith would have been more plausible. But when he used the plural "We prophets..."we are obliged to investigate the truth of the hadith and we refer to the Holy Qur'an for guidance. We find that there are a number of verses which tell us that the prophets in fact did leave inheritances. This proves that this hadith is to be rejected outright.

 

 

FATIMA ARGUES HER CASE. FATIMA'S ARGUMENTS REJECTING HADITH LA NURIS

In his Kitab-e-Saqifa the great scholar and traditionist, Abu Bakr Ahmad Bin Abdu'l-Aziz Jauhari, about whom Ibn Abi'l-Hadid says in his Sharh-e-Nahju'l-Balagha that he was one of the eminent ulema and traditionists of the Sunnis; Ibn Al-athir in his Nihaya; Mas'udi in Akhbaru'z-Zaman and in Ausat; Ibn Abi'l-Hadid in Sharh-e-Nahju'l-Balagha, vol. IV, p. 78, quoting from Abu Bakr Ahmad Jauhari's book Saqifa and Fadak in different ways and from a number of sources, some of which refer to the fifth Imam Muhammad Baqir through Siddiqi Sughra Zainab-e-Kubra and some of which refer to Abdullah Ibn Hasan on the authority of Siddiqi Kubra Fatima Zahra and on the authority of Ummu'l-Mu'minin A'yesha and also on the authority of Muhammad Bin Imran Marzabani, he from Zaid Bin Ali Bin Husain; he from his father, and he from his father Imam Husain; and he from his illustrious mother, Fatima Zahra; and many other ulema of your sect have narrated the speech of Fatima before a large gathering of the Muslims. The opponents were stunned when they heard her reasoning and could not reply. Since they had no answer to make they caused a disturbance.

 

One of the arguments of Fatima rejecting the hadith was that, if the hadith were true, then why were there so many verses about the inheritances of the prophets. She said: "At one place the Holy Qur'an says, 'And Solomon was David's heir.'"(27:16)

 

About the prophet Zakariyya the Holy Qur'an says: "Therefore grant me from thyself an heir, who shall inherit [*] of me and inherit (also) of the house of Jacob." (19,5-6)

 

About Zakariyya's invocation the Holy Qur'an says: "And Zakariyya, when he cried to his Lord: 'O my Lord, leave me not childless, though Thou art the best of inheritors.' So we responded to him and gave him Yahya." (21: 89,90)

 

[*] The important word to note is "who shall inherit." He did not say "Make my son a Prophet." It become clear that the word inheritance is meant in its comprehensive sense, that is, it include material as well as spiritual inheritance. If only the children of a prophet could inherit prophethood then how did Prophets Musa (a.s) and Issa (a.s) became prophets when their fathers were not prophets.

 

After that she said: "O Son of Abu Qahafa! Is it there in the Book of Allah that you are an heir of your father and I am deprived of my father's legacy? You have committed a great slander. Have you people deliberately abandoned the Book of Allah (the Holy Qur'an) and ignored it altogether? Am I not the descendant of the Holy Prophet? Why are you depriving me of my right? Why are all these verses of inheritance, which are intended for all people in general and for the Prophets in particular included in the Holy Qur'an? Is it not a fact that the verses of the Holy Qur'an shall remain unchanged until the Day of Judgment? Does not the Holy Qur'an say: 'And those who are akin are nearer one to another in the ordinance of Allah...' (8:75)" and: 'Allah enjoins you about your issue! the male shall have the equal of the shares of two females.' (4:12) and: 'Bequest is prescribed for you when one of you approaches death, if he leave wealth, that he bequeath unto parents and near relations in kindness. (This is) a duty for all those who ward off (evil).' Then why have I, in particular, been deprived of my father's legacy? Has Allah revealed some special verses to you, which exclude my father (from his right). Do you know the outward and inner meanings of the Holy Qur'an better than my father, Muhammad, and my cousin, Ali?"

 

She cried: "Today you have broken my heart. On the Day of Judgment I will file a suit against you in the Divine Court of Justice and Allah Almighty will decide the case justly. Allah is the best judge. Muhammad is the master and lord; our and your promised time is the Day of Resurrection. That day the transgressor will be losers, and your repentance will do you no good. For everything there is an appointed time and you will know before long who will be afflicted with scornful chastisement."

 

 

ABU BAKR'S RETURNING FADAK TO FATIMA AND UMAR'S INTERVENTION

Third, besides this, if the hadith were correct and if Abu Bakr believed that it was the Holy Prophet's ordinance, then why, after confiscating Fadak (which he considered to be charity belonging to the Muslims) did he write a document that the property be returned to Fatima? Later Caliph Umar intervened and destroyed the document.

 

By now you are probably aware that I never make a claim which I cannot fully support. Ibn Abi'l-Hadid in his Sharh-e-Nahju'l-Balagha and Ali Bin Burhanu'd-din Shafi'i in his Ta'rikh Siratu'l-Halabiyya, vol. III, p. 391, write that Abu Bakr was moved to tears by Fatima's impassioned speech. He wept because of Fatima's plight and subsequently wrote a document stating that the property be returned to her. But Umar destroyed the document.

 

It is however surprising that the same Umar, who during Abu Bakr's caliphate objected to the returning of Fadak, returned it to its heirs during his own caliphate. Similarly the Amawid and Abbasid caliphs also returned it to the heirs of Fatima.

 

 

USMAN REJECT  HADITH LA NURIS

Fourth, if the prophets do not leave behind anything for inheritance, why did Ayesha and Hafsa ask for their share from the assets of Holy Prophet (s.a.w)? In Sahih al-Bukhari , vol III page 39 and Ibn Hadid in his book 'Sharhe Nahjul Balagha' writes: Ayesha and Hafsa came to see Usman, during his Caliphate, and asked him to give them their shares of what they had inherited from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w). Usman  was stretched on his seat, so he sat up and said to Ayesha : "You and that woman sitting next to you brought a man who cleansed himself with his urine and testified that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w) said, 'We the prophets, do not leave behind any inheritance. If the Prophet truly did not leave any inheritance, why did you deprive Fatima of her legal share?" After that she left him feeling very angry and said, 'Kill Na'sal (i.e Usman), for he has become an unbeliver.'

 

 

ALI'S REMONSTRATING WITH ABU BAKR

Many scholars have recorded that when Fatima finished pleading her case, Ali began his remonstrance in the public gathering of Muslims in the mosque of Medina, turning towards Abu Bakr, he said: "Why did you deprive Fatima of her father's legacy, though she was its owner and possessed it during the lifetime of her father?" Abu Bakr replied: "Fadak is the booty of the Muslims. If Fatima produces complete evidence that it is her own property, I will certainly give it to her; otherwise, I will deprive her of it."

 

The Holy Imam said, "Is it not a fact that when you pronounce a judgment about Muslims, in general, you pass quite a contradictory judgment concerning us?"

 

"Hasn't the Holy Prophet said that the onus of proof lies on the plaintiff and that of defense on the defendant? You have rejected the judgment of the Holy Prophet and, contrary to religious law, you demand witnesses from Fatima who has been in possession of the property since the time of the Holy Prophet. Moreover is the word of Fatima, who is one of the Ashab-e-Kisa (people of the mantle) and who is included in the verse of purity, not true?"

 

"If two persons were to give evidence that Fatima had committed some wrong, tell me how would you treat her?" Abu Bakr said, "I would inflict punishment on her as I would any other woman."

 

The Holy Imam said, "If you did this, you would be an infidel before Allah, because you would have rejected Allah's evidence about Fatima's purity. Allah says 'Verily, Verily, Allah intends but to keep off from you every kind of uncleanness, O you the People of the House, and purify you (with) a thorough purification.' Is this verse not revealed in our praise?"

 

Abu Bakr said: "Why not?"

 

The Imam said: "Is it possible that Fatima, whose purity Allah has verified, would lay a false claim to a petty property? You reject the evidence of the purified one and accept the evidence of the Arab who urinates on the heel of his own foot!"

 

After saying this the Imam returned to his home angry. His protest excited the people. Everyone said: "Truth is with Ali and Fatima. By Allah, Ali speaks the truth. Why is the Holy Prophet's daughter treated so outrageously?"

 

ABU BAKR'S INSOLENCE

Ibn Abi'l-Hadid narrates that the people were deeply impressed by the protests of Ali and Fatima and began to cause a disturbance. Abu Bakr, who saw that the two holy persons had already left the mosque went to the pulpit and said:

 

"O people! Why are you so disturbed. Why do you listen to everybody? Since I have rejected their evidence, they are talking nonsense. The fact is that he is a fox who is betrayed by his own tail. He creates all sorts of disturbances. He minimizes the importance of disturbances and incites the people to create agitation and uproar. He seeks help from the weak. He seeks assistance from women. He is like Ummu't-Tihal with whom people of her own house were fond of fornicating."

 

 

 

 

CONVERSATIONS TOOK PLACE BEFORE HOUSE OF FATIMA SET ON FIRE

(1) Abu Mohammad Abdullah Ibn Muslim Ibn Qutaybah Daynuri in his history of Caliphs known as "al-Imamah wa al- Siyasah"v1, pp 3,19-20 reported: Umar asked for wood, and told those people inside the house: "I swear by Allah who has my soul in his hand, that if you do not come out, I will burn the house." Someone told Umar that Fatimah was inside the house. Umar said: "So what! It doesn't matter to me who is in the house."           

 

(2) Also Jouhari in his book said: "Umar and a few Muslims went to the house of Fatimah to burn it down and to burn those who were in opposition." Ibn  Shahna said the same statement adding "to burn the house and inhabitants".

 

(3) - History of Tabari, in the events of the year 11 AH;  al-Imamah wa al-Siyasah by Ibn Qutaybah, v1, beginning of the book, and pp 19-20; Izalatul Khilafa, by Shah Waliullah Muhaddith Dehlavi, v2, p362 and Iqd al-Farid, by Ibn Abd Rabbah al-Malik, v2, chapter of Saqifah write that  Abu Bakr said on the authority of an authentic report that, after the demise of the holy Prophet when the people had paid fealty to him, Ali and Zubair used to go to Fatimah al-Zahra, daughter of the Prophet, for consultation. When this fact was known to Umar, he went to Fatimah and said:

 

"O' daughter of the Prophet! I didn't love anyone as much as I loved your father, nor anyone after him is more loving to me as you are. But I swear by Allah that if these people assemble here with you, then this love of mine would not prevent me from setting your house on fire."

 

(4) It is recorded in Kanz al-Ummal, v3, p140 that Umar said to Fatimah (who was behind the door of her house): "I know that the Prophet of God did not love any one more than you, but this will not stop me to carry out my decision. If these people stay in your house, I will burn the door in front of you."

 

(5) In al-Ansab Ashraf, by al-Baladhuri, v1, pp 582,586 reported that: Abu Bakr asked Ali to support him, but Ali refused, then Umar went  toward the Ali's house with a burning torch. At the door he met Fatimah who said to him: "Do you intend to burn the door of my house?"  Umar said: "Yes, because this act will strengthen the faith brought to  us by your father."

 

(6) Furthermore, it is reported by Iqd al-Fareed, by Ibn Abd Rabb, Part 3, Pg. 63 and al-Ghurar, by Ibn Khazaben, related from Zayd Ibn Aslam that: Ali and Abbas were sitting inside the house of Fatimah, Abu Bakr told Umar: "Go and bring them; if they refuse, kill them." Umar brought fire to burn the house. Fatimah came near the door and said: "O son of Khattab, have you come to burn our house on me and my children?"  Umar replied: "Yes I will, by Allah, until they come out and pay allegiance to the Prophet's Caliph."

 

 

THE HOUSE IS ATTACKED, THE DOOR SET ON FIRE AND FATIMA'S MISCARRIAGE

 (7) Ahmad Ibn Abdul Aziz al-Jawhari in his book 'Saqifah', Abu Waleed Muhibbuddin Mohammad al-Shahnah al-Hanafi in his book 'Rawdhat al-Manadhir Fi Akhbaar al-Awayil wal-Aawaakhir', Ibn Abil Hadid in his book 'Sharh al-Nahj', and others have reported that everybody came out of the house except Imam Ali (AS), who said: "I have sworn to remain home until I collect the Quran."  Umar refused but Lady Fatimah's remonstration caused him to return. He instigated Abu Bakr to pursue the matter, and he send Qunfuz (his slave) several times but received a negative reply each time. Ultimately, Umar went with a group of people to the Fatimah's house. When she heard their voice, she cried loudly; "O father, O Messenger of Allah, how are Umar Ibn al-Khattab and Abu Bakr Ibn Abi Quhafah treating us after you and how do they meet us."

 

(8) Also refer to the esteemed Sunni historian Abul Hasan, Ali Ibn al-Husain al- Mas'udi who in his book 'Isbaat al-Wasiyyah' describes the events in detail and reports that: "They surrounded Ali (AS) and burned the door of his house and pulled him out against his will and pressed the leader of all women (Hadhrat Fatimah (AS)) between the door and the wall killing Mohsin (the male-child she was carrying in her womb for six months)."

 

(9) Salahuddin Khalil al-Safadi another Sunni scholar in his book 'Waafi al- Wafiyyaat' under the letter 'A' while recording the view of Ibrahim Ibn Sayyar Ibn Hani al-Basri, well-known as Nidhaam quotes him to have said: "On the day of 'Bay'aat' (paying allegiance), Umar hit Fatimah (AS) on the stomach such that child in her womb died."

 

 

ABU BAKR AND UMAR TRIED TO VISIT FATIMA TO EXPLAIN THEIR POINT, BUT IN VAIN

 To prove my point of view I should like to submit the following report. Abu Muhammad Abdullah Bin Muslim Bin Qutayba Dinawari (died 276 A.H.) in his Ta'rikh-e-Khilafa'i'r-Rashidin, known as Al-Imama wa's-iyasa, vol. I, p. 14 and others of your ulema, like Ibn Abi'l-Hadid, write in their authentic books: "Umar asked Abu Bakr to go with him to visit Fatima. They had certainly enraged her. (Some reports say that it was Abu Bakr, who asked Umar to go with him to visit Fatima. This seems more plausible.) In short, both of them went together to the door of Fatima but she did not allow them to visit her. When they asked Ali to intervene, he remained silent, but he allowed them to go in. When they went in and saluted her, she turned her face to the wall. Abu Bakr said: 'O part of the Prophet's liver, by Allah, I value the relationship of the Holy Prophet with you more than my relationship with my daughter, A'yesha. Would that I had died soon after the Holy Prophet of Allah. I know your rank and position more than any one else. If I have deprived you of your right of heritage, it was really because of the Holy Prophet, whom I myself heard saying: 'We prophets do not leave any heritage. What we leave is charity (for the Muslims).'

 

Fatima then said to Amiru'l-Mu'minin that she would remind them of a hadith of the Holy Prophet and ask them to say in the name of Allah if they had not heard the Holy Prophet saying it: 'Fatima's pleasure is my pleasure, Fatima's indignation is my indignation. So one who loves my daughter Fatima loves me; one who pleases Fatima, pleases me. One who offends Fatima, offends me.'

 

Both of them said: 'Yes we heard these words from the Holy Prophet of Allah.' Then Fatima said: 'I call Allah and His Angels to witness that both of you have offended me and did not treat me justly. When I meet the Holy Prophet I will certainly complain to him of you both.'

 

 

ABU BAKR REALIZED THE SERIOUSNESS OF FATIMA'S ANGER

Abu Bakr, being troubled at these words, began to weep and said: 'I seek Allah's shelter from the Holy Prophet's anger.' Fatima began to weep and said: 'I swear by Allah that I will certainly call down curses upon you in all my prayers.' 

 

After hearing this, Abu Bakr went out, weeping. People gathered round him and consoled him. To them he said: 'Woe be to you. You are all happy, sitting with your wives comfortably, but I am in this wretched state. I do not need your allegiance. Rid me of it. By Allah, after what I have seen and heard from Fatima, I do not want any Muslim to suffer the burden of allegiance to me.'"

 

These reports, related by your own notable ulema, show that the oppressed Fatima remained indignant with Abu Bakr and Umar until the last hour of her life.

 

In Sahih, Bukhari, vol 3 p 39 in a chapter about "The Khaybar Raid" he wrote: According to Aishah, Fatimah- may Allah's peace be upon her - daughter of the Prophet, sent a message to Abu Bakr asking him for her share of the inheritance of the Messenger of Allah, but he refused to pay Fatimah anything of it. Fatimah became so angry at Abu Bakr that she left him and never spoke to him before her death.

 

 

FATIMA WAS BURIED AT NIGHT, A PROOF OF HER LASTING DISPLEASURE WITH ABU BAKR AND UMAR

 

The clearest proof of Fatima's anger in this regard is that she made the following will to her husband, Amiru'l-Mu'minin Ali: "None of those persons who have oppressed me and snatched away my right should be allowed to join my funeral. They are certainly my and the Holy Prophet's enemies. Do not allow any one of them or their associates to offer funeral prayers for me. Bury me at night when people are asleep."

 

Sahih, Muslim, vol 2 p 72 and Bukhari vol 3 p 36 write in their Sahih that Ali complied with Lady Fatima's will and buried her at night quietly. People tried their best to find where Fatima was buried, but they could not. It is unanimously accepted that Fatima was, according to her will, buried at night. The Holy Prophet left a single daughter to serve as his memory. Your own ulema agree that he said: "Fatima is a part of my body. She is my legacy and trust. Respect her as you respect me. Never do anything to incite her anger against you. If she is angry with you, I also will be angry with you." 

 

Mir Seyyed Ali Hamadani Faqih Shafi'i writes in his Mawaddatu'l-Qurba that the Holy Prophet said: "Those who grieve Fatima will be strictly dealt with by me on the Day of Judgment. Fatima's pleasure is my pleasure, and Fatima's anger is my anger. Woe be to him with whom Fatima is indignant."

 

How tragic is it that for all these declarations, the Community not only ignored her but also snatched away her right and caused her so intense torment. Why do you think an 18 year old young lady was forced to walk with the help of a walking-stick? Even while still a young woman, she declared: "I was subjected to so many troubles that if days had been subjected to such troubles, they would have turned into nights."

 

 

It is also reported that by Ya'qubi, v2, pp 115-116 and Ansab Ashraf, by al-Baladhuri, v1, pp 582,586 that  Abu Bakr said (on his death bed): "I wish I had not searched for Fatimah's house, and had not sent men to harass her, though it would  have caused a war if her house would have continued to be used as a shelter."

 

The historian named the following people among those who attacked the house of Fatimah to disperse people who sheltered there:

 

     - Umar Ibn al-Khattab

     - Khalid Ibn Walid

     - Abdurrahman Ibn Ouf

     - Thabit Ibn Shammas

     - Ziad Ibn Labid

     - Muhammad Ibn Maslamah

     - Salamah Ibn Salem Ibn Waqash

     - Salamah Ibn Aslam

     - Usaid Ibn Hozair

     - Zaid Ibn Thabit


 "WHOEVER I AM HIS MASTER, ALI IS HIS MASTER. O God! Love those who love him. Be hostile to those who are hostile to him. Hate those who hate him. Help those who help him. And keep the truth with him wherever he turns." (repeating this paragraph three times). 

 

وَنَجَّيْنَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَكَانُوا يَتَّقُونَ {41:18}

But We delivered those who believed and practised righteousness

 

DURING PROPHET (SAW)

Assassination of the Prophet
   

AFTER PROPHET (SAW) DEATH

Abu Baker Group Against Ali
 Abu Baker Group against Fatimah
Ahlelbait against Abu Baker group
   
 

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وَنَجَّيْنَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَكَانُوا يَتَّقُونَ     اللهم صلى على محد و ال محد.... و عجل فرجهم