View of the Companions
in this article is how the Shia view the companions of the
Muhammad (PBUH&HF). In this part we shall look at Allah's (SWT)
stated in the Quran, with regards to the companions as well as
Prophet's (PBUH&HF) opinion through authentic Sunni traditions.
The Shia do
not have a unique opinion towards the companions of the
Based on the relative authenticity and interpretations of the
traditions, some arrive at different conclusions for the second
the companions mentioned below. Which tradition is more
and what is its correct meaning, is something debatable. However,
provide what is considered to be a typical Shi'ite position in this
divide the companions into three factions: First, are those who
Allah (SWT), believed in the Prophet (PBUH&HF), and gave all
for the sake of Islam. These are the highest in rank. These
ALWAYS supported the Prophet and were WITH him. They never disobeyed
him in every other issue, nor did they ever accused him of
non-sense! (may Allah protect us). Examples include, but are not
Ali Ibn Abi Talib (AS), Abu Dhar al-Ghifari, Salman al-Farsi,
Amar Ibn Yasir, Jabir Ibn Abdillah al-Ansari, ... may Allah (SWT)
group, are those who believed in Allah (SWT) and the Prophet
but were not sincere to the fullest limit. These include, but
limited to, Abu Bakr and Umar.
group, are those who became apostate after the death of Prophet
al-Bukhari recorded (see below), or those who neither believed in Allah
the Prophet (PBUH&HF) in the first place, but managed to
the Islamic isles to be included among the Muslims. These are
hypocrites, like Abu Sufyan, his son Muawiyah, and his grandson Yazid.
he became caliph, said:
played with the throne, but no revelation was revealed, nor
there a true message!!!"
of al-Tabari, Arabic, 13, p2174
al-Khawas, Sibt Ibn al-Jawzi al-Hanafi, p261
is the clan and tribe of the Prophet (PBUH&HF), and this is an
pun suggesting that the Prophet (PBUH&HF) was a liar, not a
prophet. The "throne (sovereignty)" is an allusion to the control of
of Mecca and the entire region, meaning that the tribe of
controlled the entire region by virtue of the Message of Islam and
Muhammad (PBUH&HF) is the chosen Prophet, but really there was no
and there was no message!!! That is Yazid's opinion of Allah
Islam, and the Prophet (PBUH&HF). His father, Muawiyah, and his
grandfather, Abu Sufyan, were no better. At the beginning the reign of
Umayad occupied the prominent positions, Abu Sufayn said:
Children of Umayyah! Now that this kingdom has come to you, play
it as the children play with a ball, and pass it from one to
another in your clan. We are not sure whether there is a paradise or
but this kingdom is a reality."
by Ibn Abd al-Barr, v4, p1679
- Sharh Ibn
Abil Hadid, v9, p53 which quotes the last sentence as follows:
in whose name Abu Sufyan swears, there is neither punishment nor
reckoning, neither Garden nor Fire, neither Resurrection nor Day of
Syfyan went to Uhud and kicked at the grave of Hamza (the uncle of
who was martyred in the Battle of Uhud in fighting against Abu
said: "O Abu Ya'la! See that the kingdom which you fought
finally come back to us." (Sharh Ibn Abil Hadid, v16, p136).
Now let us
see what his son, Muawiyah, said when he took over the
didn't fight you to pray, fast, and pay charity, but rather to be
leader and control you!!!"
This is an
indication that Muawiyah never cared about any of Islam's
nor Allah's (SWT) orders; rather his war was politically
to gain control of the whole region and take over the Caliphate.
It is no
wonder or surprise! Muawiyah poisoned Imam al-Hasan (AS), the
of Fatimah (AS) -- the daughter of the Prophet (PBUH&HF).
al-Khawas, Sibt Ibn al-Jawzi al-Hanafi, pp 191-194
- Ibn Abd
al-Barr, in his "Seera"
reported by the traditionists such as al-Suddi and al-Sha'bi.
the Muawiyah's son, slaughtered Imam al-Husain (AS), in the
Karbala in Iraq, and ordered that Imam al-Husain's (AS) head be
a spear and displayed in towns for people to see it! May Allah
Prophet's family!!! May Allah avenge the Prophet's family!!!
avenge the Prophet's (PBUH&HF) family!!!
The Holy Quran
Now let us
look at the Holy Quran for different categories:
faction of the companions are characterized by Allah (SWT) in
"Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah; and those who are with him are
against the unbelievers, (but) compassionate amongst each
other. Thou wilt see them bow and prostrate themselves (in prayer),
seeking Grace from Allah and (His) Good Pleasure. On their faces are
marks, (being) the traces of their prostration. This is their
similitude in the Taurat (Torah); And their similitude in the Gospel
Like a seed which sends forth its blade, then makes it strong; it
becomes thick, and it stands on its own stem, (filling) the
with wonder and delight. As a result, it fills the Unbelievers
rage at them. Allah has promised those among them who believe
righteous deeds Forgiveness, and a great Reward. [48:29]"
companions (May Allah (SWT) be Pleased With Them), the Shia and the
NO quarrel about. As such, they will not be discussed here.
note what Allah (SWT) in His (SWT) infinite wisdom states in the
"Allah has promised those among them who believe and do
deeds Forgiveness, and a great Reward." Now, note "...those
them..." Why didn't Allah (SWT) say "Allah has promised ALL OF
Because not all of them were righteous! That's what the Shia are
convey to the world! The Sunnis, whenever they bless the Prophet
they also bless ALL the companions, with NO exception. Why did
their Creator (SWT), make an exception, while the Sunni
don't? This is a sign for those who reflect...
the verse specifies those who were WITH the Prophet, which means
were obedient to him and did not oppose/discredit him. Certainly
hypocrites walked with the Prophet and used to attach themselves to
him, yet NO
Muslim ever entitle them to the above verse which states "those
As for the
second faction of the companions, Allah (SWT) said:
who believe! What is the matter with you, that when ye are asked
forth in the Cause of Allah, ye cling heavily to the earth? Do
prefer the life of this world to the Hereafter? But little is the
comfort of this life, as compared with the Hereafter. Unless ye go
He will punish you with a grievous penalty, and put others in
place; But Him ye would not harm in the least, For Allah hath
over all things."[9:38-39]
This is a
clear indication that some of the companions were lazy during the
Jihad and other activities, and, thus, deserved the above reprimand
by Allah (SWT).
This is not the only instance where Allah (SWT) threatened
If you turn back (from the path), He will substitute in your
another people; then they would not be like you! [47:38]"
tell me Who Allah is referring by "you" in the above verse? Allah
who believe! Do not raise your voices above the voice of
prophet ... lest your deeds become null while you do not perceive."
Sunni traditions confirm that there have been some companions who
oppose the Prophet's order and quarrel with him in several
was the issue of the captives of the battle "Badr" that the
ordered their freedom for payment of the ransom money (Fidyah),
these companions went against it.
was the battle of "Tabook" that the Prophet ordered to slaughter
camels, to save their lives, and the same people went against it.
was the treaty of "Hudabiyyah" that the Prophet wanted to make
with people of Mecca, and the very same companions went against it
even cast doubt about the prophethood of Muhammad (PBUH&HF).
was the battle of "Hunain" where they accused the Prophet of
injustice in distributing the war booty.
was the appointment of "Usamah Ibn Zayd" who was assigned as the
of Islamic army by the Prophet, and these companions disobeyed
order to follow him.
was a tragic Thursday when the Messenger of Allah wanted to state
will, and the very same companions accused him of talking non-sense
prevented him to do so.
are many more of such reports which can be even found in Sahih al-
As for the
third faction of the companions, there is a whole chapter in the
addressing them: "al-Munafiqun --The Hypocrites -- Ch. 63", and
there are many other verses in this regard as well. Allah (SWT)
"Muhammad is no more than a Messenger: many were the Messengers that
away before him. If he died or were slain, will ye then turn
on your heels? If any did turn back on his heels, not the least
will he do to Allah; But Allah (on the other hand) will swiftly
those who (serve Him) with gratitude. [3:144]"
was revealed when some of the companions ran away from the
Uhud, when they falsely heard that Prophet was killed. Although
forgiven by Prophet later, but the above verse gives a
that some of the companions may abandon Islam if the Prophet
dies. But Allah (SWT) makes exceptions: "...those who (serve Him)
gratitude." Again, Allah (SWT) states:
who believe! If any from among you turn back from his faith,
will Allah produce a people whom He will love as they will love
--Lowly with the Believers, Mighty against the Rejecters,
fighting in the way of Allah, and never afraid of the reproaches of
as find fault. That is the Grace of Allah, which He will bestow
whom He pleaseth. And Allah encompasseth all, And He knoweth all
The Authentic Traditions
giving more straightforward verses from Quran for this third group,
let me give
you some traditions from Sahih al-Bukhari which confirms
for them. Since al-Bukhari has CONFIRMED the authenticity of the
tradition, I hope you do not consider him a "Kafir" after reading
NOTE: As usual, the numbers match the Arabic-English
version of Sahih al-Bukhari which is available in almost
every places. The first number before the point indicates
the volume number, and the number after the point
indicates the tradition number (NOT the page number). For
example Hadith 8.578 indicates volume 8, tradition #578.
al-Bukhari Hadith: 8.578
Prophet said, "I am your predecessor at the Lake-Fount." 'Abdullah
The Prophet said, "I am your predecessor at the Lake-Fount, and
of you will be brought in front of me till I will see them and
they will be taken away from me and I will say, 'O Lord, my
companions!' It will be said, 'You do not know what they did after you
al-Bukhari Hadith: 8.584
Prophet said, "Some of my companions will come to me at my Lake
and after I recognize them, they will then be taken away from
whereupon I will say, 'My companions!' Then it will be said, 'You
know what they innovated (new things) in the religion after
(also Sahih Muslim, part 15, pp 53-54)
al-Bukhari Hadith: 8.585
Abu Hazim from Sahl bin Sa'd:
Prophet said, "I am your predecessor (forerunner) at the Lake-
and whoever will pass by there, he will drink from it and
whoever will drink from it, he will never be thirsty. There will come
some people whom I will recognize, and they will recognize me,
barrier will be placed between me and them." Abu Hazim added:
bin Abi 'Aiyash, on hearing me, said. "Did you hear this from
I said, "Yes." He said, " I bear witness that I heard Abu Said
saying the same, adding that the Prophet said: 'I will say:
are my companions. Then it will be said to me, 'You do not know
they innovated (new things) in the religion after you left'.
say, 'Far removed, far removed (from mercy), those who changed
me." Abu Huraira narrated that the Prophet said, "On the Day of
Resurrection a group of companions will come to me, but will be
away from the Lake-Fount, and I will say, 'O Lord
are) my companions!' It will be said, 'You have no knowledge
what they innovated after you left; they turned apostate as
renegades (reverted from the true Islam)."^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
al-Bukhari Hadith: 8.586
men from my companions will come to my Lake-Fount and they will
driven away from it, and I will say, 'O Lord, my companions!' It
be said, 'You have no knowledge of what they innovated after you
they turned APOSTATE as renegades (reverted from true Islam)."
Sahih Muslim, part 10, p64, also P59)
Bukhari Hadith: 8.587
Prophet said, "While I was sleeping, a group (of my followers were
brought close to me), and when I recognized them, a man (an angel)
out from amongst (us) me and them, he said (to them), 'Come
along.' I asked, 'Where?' He said, 'To the (Hell) Fire, by Allah' I
'what is wrong with them?' He said, 'They turned APOSTATE as
renegades after you left.' Then behold! (Another) group (of my
followers) were brought close to me, and when I recognized them, a man
angel) came out from (me and them) he said (to them); Come along.'
asked, "Where?' He said, 'To the (Hell) Fire, by Allah.' I asked,
is wrong with them?' He said, 'They turned APOSTATE as renegades
you left. So I did not see anyone of them escaping except a few
were like camels without a shepherd."
al-Bukhari Hadith: 8.592
Asma 'bint Abu Bakr:
Prophet said, "I will be standing at the Lake-Fount so that I will
whom among you will come to me; and some people will be taken away
me, and I will say, 'O Lord, (they are) from me and from my
followers.' Then it will be said, 'Did you notice what they did after
By Allah, they kept on turning on their heels (turned away from
Islam).' " The sub-narrator, Ibn Abi Mulaika said, "O Allah, we
refuge with You from turning on our heels, or being put to trial
al-Bukhari Hadith: 9.172
Prophet said, "I will be at my Lake-Fount (Kauthar) waiting for
whoever will come to me. Then some people will be taken away from me
whereupon I will say, 'My followers!' It will be said, 'You do not
they turned APOSTATES as renegades (deserted their religion).'"
Abi Mulaika said, "Allah, we seek refuge with You from turning on
heels from the (Islamic) religion and from being put to trial").
al-Bukhari Hadith: 9.173
Prophet said, "I am your predecessor at the Lake-Fount (Kauthar)
some men amongst you will be brought to me, and when I will try to
them some water, they will be pulled away from me by force
whereupon I will say, 'O Lord, my companions!' Then the Almighty will
'You do not know what they did after you left, they introduced
things into the religion after you.'" ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
al-Bukhari Hadith: 9.174
Sahl bin Sa'd:
heard the Prophet saying, "I am your predecessor at the Lake-Fount
and whoever will come to it, will drink from it, and
whoever will drink from it, will never become thirsty after that.
will come to me some people whom I know and they know me, and
barrier will be set up between me and them." Abu Sa'id al-
added that the Prophet further said: "I will say those people
from me. It will be said, 'You do not know what changes and new
they did after you.' Then I will say, 'Far removed (from
mercy), far removed (from mercy), those who changed after me!' "
al-Bukhari Hadith: 8.434
Prophet went out and offered the funeral prayer for the martyrs of
(battle of) Uhud and then ascended the pulpit and said, "I am your
predecessor and I am a witness against you. By Allah, I am now looking
Tank-lake (Al-Kauthar) and I have been given the keys of the
treasures of the earth (or the keys of the earth). By Allah! I am not
that you become polytheist after me, but I am afraid that you
start competing for it (i.e., the pleasures and treasures of this
al-Bukhari Hadith: 3.555
Prophet said, "By Him in Whose Hands my soul is, I will drive some
out from my (sacred) Fount on the Day of Resurrection as
strange camels are expelled from a private trough."
al-Bukhari Hadith: 4.375
Anas bin Malik:
The Prophet said to the Ansar: "You will find after me some great
selfishness (UTHRAH). Then be patient till you meet Allah and meet His
Apostle at al-Kauthar (i.e. a fount in Paradise)." (Anas added:) But
not remain patient.
English translation of Sahih al-Bukhari 'Uthrah' (selfishness) has
translated to another word, but the rest are the same.
al-Bukhari Hadith: 5.488
al-Bara bin 'Azib and said (to him). "May you live prosperously!
enjoyed the company of the Prophet and gave him the Pledge of
allegiance (of al-Hudaibiya) under the Tree (of al-Hudaybiyah)." On
al-Bara' said, "O my nephew! You do not know what we have done
him (i.e. his death)."
traditions, nonetheless, indicate the Prophet's (PBUH&HF) knowledge
awareness that some of his companions will change after him (PBUH&HF),
therefore, will be condemned to hell. This is another reason why the
maintain that the Prophet (PBUH&HF) MUST have had a special vicegerent
the affairs of the Ummah (Nation) to -- a vicegerent that will NOT
the religion and will remain steadfast until he meets his Creator
It is a
known fact that the companions quarreled after the death of the
and wars were waged. The fact, again and again, that
companions were divided is illuminated by Allah (SWT) in the following
there be among you an Ummah inviting to all that is good,
enjoining what is right, and forbidding what is wrong. They are
ones to attain felicity. Be not like those who are divided
amongst themselves and fall into disputations after receiving Clear
For them is a dreadful Chastisement. On the Day when some faces
be (lit up with) white, and some faces will be (in the gloom of)
To those whose faces will be black, (will be said): Did ye
Faith after accepting it? Taste then the Chastisement for
rejecting Faith." [3:104-106]
verse shows among the companion there were a group (Ummah) who
righteous. The verse emphasizes that this Ummah is AMONG THEM
so it does
not cover all of them. However. the latter part the verse
the thrid group who were apostatized (turned back on) their
the Prophet (PBUH&HF) died. The verse indicates that on the
Judgment, there will be two factions: one with white-lit faces, and
with black-lit faces; that's another hint that the companions
some more verses from the Quran that address the third group of
and their actions:
swear by Allah that they said nothing (evil), but indeed they
uttered blasphemy, and they uttered it after accepting Islam: and they
meditated a plot which they were unable to carry out: this revenge of
was (their) only return for the bounty with which Allah and His
Messenger had enriched them! If they repent, it will be best for them:
they turn back (to their evil ways), Allah will punish them
grievous chastisement in this life and in the Hereafter: They
have none on earth to protect or help them. [9:74]"
hath put as a consequence hypocrisy into their hearts, (to
till the Day whereon they shall meet Him: because they broke
Covenant with Allah, and because they lied (again and again).
Arabs are the worst in unbelief and hypocrisy, and most fitted
in ignorance of the command which Allah hath sent down to His
Messenger: But Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise. [9:97]"
thou not turned thy thought to those who declare that they
believe in the revelations that have come to thee and to those before
Their (real) wish is to resort together for judgment (in their
disputes) to the Evil (Tagut) though they were ordered to reject him.
Satan's wish is to lead them astray far away (from the Right).
their hearts is a disease; and Allah has increased their disease:
grievous is the chastisement they (incur), because they lied (to
Now let us
look at the following verse:
not the time arrived for the Believers that their hearts in all
humility should engage in the remembrance of Allah and of the Truth
has been revealed (to them), and that they should not become
those to whom was given The Book aforetime, but long ages passed
them and their hearts grew hard? For many among them are
rebellious transgressors. [57:16]"
be some translations which state that the above verse is meant to
Jews and the Christians. That is not true, because it
the verse itself. First, Allah (SWT) is addressing the
and THEN comparing them to the Jews and the Christians. How
it be that Allah (SWT) tells the Jews and the Christians: "Has
time arrived for the Believers that their hearts in all humility
engage in the remembrance of Allah..." and then tell them: "...and
should not become like those to whom was given The Book
Why would Allah (SWT) compare the Christians (or the Jews)
themselves? Does that make sense? No, and Allah (SWT) doesn't
Himself (SWT). Rather, the verse was revealed as a questioning
by Allah (SWT)
regarding some of the the Muhajiroon (the Immigrants), who
after the Quran was revealed, had still not fully believed in
HEARTS. Allah (SWT), as a result, showed disapproval. Again, at the
points out that among them are many rebellious transgressors.
mentioned, there are some verses in Quran which admired the first
among the companions. Nevertheless, these verses do not include ALL
companions. Quran often uses the phrase "believers among them" or
preceded in belief among them" which shows it does not address
companions. In fact some hypocrites were among the companions.
hypocrites were known among the companions they would be no longer
and would become known enemy.
when Allah states I WAS pleased with them till today, it does not
they will also be good tomorrow. It is inconceivable that Allah
will give a
permanent immunity to some people who supposedly have done some
earlier, but they shed the blood of thousands of innocent
later after the departure of Prophet. If it were so, it would mean
companion could cancel all the Quranic rules and the instructions
Prophet. However, as I mentioned, Shia do not discredit all the
There were companions who are in great respect for us. These
whom Allah admired in the Holy Quran. As you might have noticed,
verses in the Holy Quran do not include all the companions. When
those who preceded (in belief), FROM AMONG Immigrants and
Helpers and those who followed them in what was good, Allah * WAS *
satisfied with them; He has prepared for them gardens under which
rivers flow to dwell therein for ever. That is the great felicity.
(however) among the ARABS AROUND YOU ARE HYPOCRITES, and
among the people of Madina (there are some who) persist
hypocrisy whom you (O Muhammad) DO NOT KNOW. We, We know
them, and We shall punish them twice; then they will be sent to
verses show that:
WAS satisfied with them, but may not be applicable later.
addressing those who preceded in belief from among them, thus
means He is not addressing all of the companions.
Immediately in the next verse, Allah talks about the hypocrites
arround Prophet who pretend to be his sincere companions and even
Prophet does not know them according to the above verse. This is in
conformity with the traditions of Sahih al-Bukhari mentioned above
Allah will say to His Prophet that "You do not know what these
companions have done after you left them."
there are verses in Quran in which Allah uses past tense verb,
but it is
intended as present and/or future tense verb. However it is not
case. There are many verses in Quran in which Allah clearly
He changes His decisions in time based on our actions at each
time. Allah is not in the domain of time, but He has ability
his decision in the dimension of time. Of course He previously
He will to change later, and He has the foreknowledge of every
does not treat a believer in a bad manner today, even though
that this believer will become apostate tomorrow.
this point, please see verses of Quran such as 8:65-66, 7:153,
16:119, 13:11, in which Allah clearly states He changes His
based on our behavior. You can locate many verses like these in
Allah's judgment about human beings changes in time according to our
we do something good, He will get please with us, and then if
something bad, He gets angry from us, and so on. Companions are not
this rule. Any body who does good deeds, Allah was pleased
no matter if he was companion or not.
JUST. He does not discriminate between companion and others who
this time. No body is guaranteed to go to paradise if he or she
things, kills innocents,... . Otherwise Allah is not just.
states in Quran that "Every body is responsible for what he has
states: "Fulfill your propmise, so that I fullfill My Promise."
2:40). Thus even if we assume for the sake of argument that the
implies "all" the companions have been promised Paradise,
2:40 clearly states that if those people break their convenant
death of the messenger of Allah and kill innocents, then Allah
fulfill His promise for them either.
Let us also
look at the following Quranic verses which clearly shows that
person with high virtues who deserves paradise, can BURN OUT all his
(Habt of Amal) at once! So never judge people for their early
(if any!). We should always look at the final result of each
Even prophet didn't know what will be his destiny till he died
he passed his final exam!) because he had freedom to do wrong
"(O Prophet) If you ascribe a partner to Allah, your work will
and you will be among the losers." (Quran 39:65)
prophet's deeds are in danger of BURNING, it is clear how to judge for
companions. Of course prophet did not burn out his deeds, but there was
of danger of burning for him too.
said: "And if any of you turn back from their faith and die in
their works BURN OUT and will be of no use in this world and
and they will be companions of Fire for ever." (Quran 2:217)
Exalted, also said: "Those who become unbeliever after they have been
and grow violent in disbelief, their repentance will not be
and such people are those who go astray." (Quran 3:90)
said: "On that day (Doomsday) some faces will be bright and some
be dark. To those whose faces will be dark (will be said:) Did
faith after accepting it? Taste the penalty for rejecting
said: "Those who believe, then reject faith, then believe
and then reject faith (again) and go on in disbelief, Allah will
them nor guide them on the way." (Quran 4:137)
So it is
quite possible for a believer whom Allah is satisfied with him,
unbeliever tomorrow. Otherwise if somebody is promised that
satisfied with him for ever and unconditionally (no mater he
innocents or does any other wrong thing later), then it means that he
longer under the test of Allah, which is in contradiction with
verses of Quran.