KAB AL-AHBAR OR ABDULLAH BIN SABA?
THE ROLE OF HOLY IMAMS (A.S)
IN THE REVIVAL OF RELIGION
Allamah Seyed Murteza
Assalamun alaikum netters
This article is
extracted from the book “THE ROLE OF HOLY IMAMS (A.S) IN THE REVIVAL
OF RELIGION” the second book of Allamah Seyed Murteza Askari
Kab al-Ahbar or Abdullah
bin Saba? (1)
KAB AL-AHBAR, THE JEWISH SCHOLAR,
THE EXPOSITOR OF
This man whose name was «Kab-ibn-Matea»
and agnomen was «Abu- Ishaaq» (also) possessed the title of
«Kab al-Ahbar». Sometimes he was also called as «Kab-ul-Ahabr»
but his most famous name was his very title i.e. «Kab
«Ahbar» is the plural of «Habr»
[حبر ] and «Habr» [حبر]
is a title given to a Jewish scholar although a Christian
scholar too is sometimes called as «Habr» [حبر].
He was called as «Kab al-Ahbar» by the Jews because the
entire holy books which were supposed to be in the hands of
their scholars were all in his hands or that he was reckoned
to be the greatest or at least one of the greatest scholars
About his life-history,
historians have said that he was the most eminent scholar
amongst the «Ahl-e-Kitab»249. They have also
stated that he was from the Jewish scribes from Yemen and
had come to Medina during Omar's reign of government and had
accepted Islam during Abu-Bakr's era.
From the available
traditions it can be judged that «Kab al-Ahbar» had gone to
Medina so that en-route he could finally travel to Bait-ul-Muqaddas
and settle there. During the period of the Christian might
and power, the Jews were harassed and tortured by them. For
this reason, the Jews could not live in peace in Bait-ul-Muqaddas
which was a holy place for them too. However, with the
advent of Islam and the freeing of this land from the hands
of the Christian rulers, «Kab al-Ahbar» wished to travel and
settle in the promised land of the Jews i.e. Syria and Bait-ul-Muqaddas.
Ibne-Asaker, the writer of
the great history of Damascus says: Omar-ibn- Khattab
addressed Kab as such: «Now that you have accepted Islam why
don't you stay in Medina which is the place of the Holy
Prophet's migration and also the place of his shrine?» Kab
replied: «I have come across a point in the revealed
Book of God that Syria has been named as God's treasure on
the earth where His servants are gathered in that treasure.
Kab would always use the
title «Book of God» for Torah (in spite of the fact that
Torah at that time was a distorted book and there was no
other heavenly revealed book existent.) and whenever he
would rememorate the divine book he had only the Torah in
mind (this matter can be repeatedly found in the traditions
narrated by him).
The second Caliph insisted
that Kab remains in Medina, Kab too stayed in Medina until
Uthman's rulership. Uthman ruled for a period of twelve
years. During the first six years, he did not change so much
from the line of policy adopted by the previous two
governments and so there were no protests. However, during
the second half of his Caliphate, conditions changed and
that because of permitting the Bani-Umayyids and his own
relatives to interfere in the affairs of the government. At
this time, Kab left Medina and joined Muawiya in Syria.
During this very period he died at the age of 104 years.
Historians have mentioned
the year of his death to be 35 A.H.
«Kab al-Ahbar» strived hard
to spread the Jewish tales amongst the Muslims. Most of the
Jewish tales, the praises and eulogies for the «Ahl-e- Kitab»
and their «Qibla» (direction faced in prayer) i.e. «Bait-ul-
Muqaddas» and especially those things which have come down
in the Islamic texts have all been disseminated through him.
The proof to this saying is the presence of Kab's narrations
in the books of «Tafseer» (exegesis) «Hadith» (tradition),
Islamic «Seerah» (biography) and «Tarikh» (history).
Ibne-Asaker in his «Tarish»
narrates from Kab al-Ahbar as follows:
أحب البلاد الى الله الشام و أحب الشام الى الله
most beloved land on earth before God is the land of Syria
and the most beloved spot in Syria before God is Qods. 252"
Conclusion: Syria and Qods
are more beloved and valuable before God than even Mecca and
Also, he has said:
أعشار الخير بالشام وجزئه في سائر الأرضين
has placed nine tenth (9/10) of the goodness and blessing in
the land of Syria and distributed only a part of the
remaining over the entire earth."
he has said:
من مدن الجنة : بيت المقدس وحمص و دمشق وجبرين
are five cities from the cities of Paradise: Bait-ul-Muqaddas,
Hums, Damascus, Jabreen (a flourinshing place near Bait-ul-Muqaddas)
and Zafaar-ul-Yemen (the place where Kab used to live before
migrating to Medina and then Syria).254 Also, he
اربعة اجبل : جبل الخليل ولبنان و الطور والجودى
يكون كل واحد منهم يوم القيامة لولوة بيضاء ما بين السماء واالأرض
يرجعن الى بيت المقدس حتى يجعل في زواياة ويضع الجبار جل جلاله
عليها كرسيه حتى يقضى بين اهل الجنة والنار وترى الملائكة حافين من
حول العرش يسبحون بحمد ربهم و قضي بينهم بالحق و قيل الحمدلله رب
the Day of Judgement, four mountains namely Jabal al-Khalil
which is situated near Bait-ul-Muqaddas and on which is
placed the grave of Hazrat Ibrahim-e-Khalil, Jabel-e-Lebanon
(mountain range of Lebanon), Jabal-e- Tur (mountain range of
Tur), and Jabal-e-Judii (mountain range of Judii) will be
like sparkling pearls between the heavens and the earth. On
that day these four mountains will be moved back to Bait-ul-Muqaddas
and will be placed in the four corners of the city. (Then)
the Omnipotent God will set His Throne on it and from there,
He will pass judgement over the people of Paradise and Hell.
Thereafter, he sets forth, at the end of his saying the holy
verse of Quran as a proof: «And you shall see the angels
going round about the throne glorifying and praising their
Lord; and judgement shall be given between them with
justice, and it shall be said: All praise is due to Allah,
the Lord of the worlds"255, 256. In
other words, he wishes to say that the interpretation of
this holy verse is something which has come down in his
Our declaration that such
matters has penetrated into the reliable Islamic texts can
be judged from this very tradition which is present in the
great history of Ibne-Asaker as well as in the famous
exegesis of «Durrul- Manthur».
These are examples wherein
one can clearly observe the manner in which the matters
related to «Ahl-e-Kitab» especially the Jews have become
prevalent among the Muslims by means of Kab:
respectable. God sets His seat or throne - which are
physical too - in that place. The four mountains which are
sacred mostly for the Jews and the land of Bait-ul-Muqaddas
are the bases and pavillion for God's throne.
Also, he says:257
«On the Day of Judgement the people of Syria will be told
that God would take care of them just as a warrior takes
care of his arrows kept in his quiver. This is because Syria
is the most beloved land before Him and its people are His
most beloved creatures.»
He adds: «Anyone who enters
Syria will come under God's mercy and favour and anyone who
exits from it will be a loser».
Similarly, he says: «The
haven for the Muslims from dangers and calamities is the
city of Damascus and the place of deliverance for Dajjal is
the river of Abu-Fatras (a place near Rumallah in Palestine)
and the place of refuge from God and Magog is the mountain
of Tur. 258
In another tradition, Kab
ان الكعبة تسجد لبيت المقدس
في كل غداة:
«Every morning, the Ka'aba
(the holy House of God) prostrates before Bait -ul-Muqaddas.
It is interesting to state
that this tradition is read to Imam Baqir (A.S.) and then
commented: Kab has spoken the truth, Imam reproached them by
have lied and so has Kab.' 260
Yet in another tradition,
Kab has said:
لا تقوم الساعة حتى يزف
البيت الحرام الى البيت المقدس :
The Day of Judgement will
not be established but after Bait-ul-Haram has been shifted
towards Bait-ul-Muqaddas. Thereafter, these two holy houses
will be made to enter Paradise along with their residents
and the reckoning of the creatures and the presentation of
deeds on that day will be conducted at Bait-ul-Muqaddas.
You must have observed that
in these expressions, the focal point is this that the
sanctities of Islam like the Ka'aba prostrate before the
sanctities of the Jews like Bait-ul-Muqaddas or fall in
humbleness or advance towards it in order to reach Paradise.
Is it not that these words, inculcations or
propaganda of such thoughts finally lead to Islam greeting
Judaism with humility? It is on the basis of these
information that we believe that Kab spread Judaism and its
culture amongst the Muslims and presented
its fake values as lofty Islamic values.
THE STUDENTS OF KAB
In addition to his endeavours in spreading his own sayings and the distorted
Jewish culture in the Islamic society, Kab also engaged in
training students who would assist him in propagating
Judaism. Aside from training those students mentally, this
double-faced Jew also endeavoured to introduce them as
learned men and scholars in the society. Under various
pretexts, he would strive to make his students earn fame.
Amongst Kab's students, we
may mention the name of Abdullah-ibn-Amro- ibn-Aas. Once Kab
asked him a question and Abdullah responded correctly. Kab
انت أفقه العرب :
«You are more learned and
knowledgeable than all the Arabs«
In the city of Mecca, Kab
was asked a question and he said: «Go and inquire from
Abdullah-ibn-Amro Aas. When the question was put before
Abdullah and he replied, Kab said:
عام و الله
He has spoken the truth. I
swear by Allah that he is a learned man.»
Amongst Kab's other
students was Abu-Huraira, the famous narrator of numerous
traditions in the Caliphate school.
Kab strived to give this
man who gained importance (only) from Muawiya's era and
onwards special type of training and satiate him with Jewish
Tabari, in the three of his
traditions reveals how Kab, in the course of his training to
Abu-Huraira has taught the latter the Jewish culture.
Apart from the numerous
traditions which Abu-Huraira has narrated without having
mentioned the name of Kab, there are yet numerous other
traditions wherein Abu-Huraira has mentioned the real source
of his information i.e. Kab. 264 It is for this
very reason that religious scholars reckon Abu-Huraira to
have been one of Kab's students and trainees.
Just as in the case of
Abdullah-ibn-Amro Aas, with regards to Abu-Huraira too, Kab
al-Ahbar strived to make him earn fame and credibility. Once
Kab, after having conversed with Abu-Huraira in length said
about him as such:
مارأيت أحدا لم يقرء التوراة اعلم بمافيها من ابى هريرة
«I have not come across any
person who has read the Torah but has understood its
meanings better than Abu-Huraira. »266
KAB'S INFLUENCE IN OFFICIAL
For achieving his
objectives, this Jewish scholar strived hard to penetrate
the hearts of the powerful men and the Caliphs. He pursued
this path by living a special way of life. Even in this
posture, Kab strived contentiously in propagating the Jewish
culture i.e. from the one side he was propagating his own
culture and from the other side he was concentrating in
penetrating in the system of Caliphate and drawing the
In one of his meetings with
Omar-ibn-Khattab, he said:-
انا لنجدك فى كتاب الله على باب من ابواب جهنم تمنع
الناس ان يقعوا فيها فاذامت لم يزالوا يقتحمون فيها الى يوم
«We could find your name in
the divine Book (of course by divine Book, he meant the
Torah) wherein is mentioned that you have been placed near
the gates of Hell and you prevent the people from entering
it. However, as soon as you die the people will ceaselessly
enter Hell and this will continue until the Day of Judgement.
Perhaps, the Holy Prophet
too did not possess such a virtue; that up to the time he
was alive, he could stand near the gates of Hell and have
the power to prevent the people from entering it. The same
is true for Abu-Bakr and nobody other than Omar too
possessed this virtue. It is only Omar who is the barrier
for the people - such people who with their evil deeds have
to enter Hell - and with his death, there no longer remains
any barrier in the way of Hell!
Similarly, when Omar-ibn-Khattab
got killed by the hands of Abu-Lualu, Kab said:
Omar requests Allah to allow him to remain alive, then
certainly Allah will grant him a long life."
As usual, here too, Kab
indirectly referred to the Torah and narrated one story from
From the traditions it
sometimes appears that the ruling power too wanted Kab to
earn fame and credibility amongst the Muslims and that
people should show trust and faith in him.
In an authentic book of
exegesis of the Caliphate school, Omar-ibn- Khattab inquired
from Kab the meaning of [Arabic text] from the following
Kab al-Ahbar immediately
«(t refers to) golden
places and mansions in Paradise which are the places of
residents for the Prophet, the truthful ones and the just
Therefore, he started
interpreting the verse [Arabic text] and said: [Arabic text]
in this verse refers to chastisement where God protects such
people from chastisement. 270
Verily, just as you have
realized, the expressions of this Jewish scholar in the form
of interpretation of the Holy Quran has found its way in the
exegesis of the Caliphate school. For example, it has come
down in Tafseer (exegesis) of Suyuti and Qurtabi as the
interpretation of verses eight and nine of Sura Ghafir.
In another instance, the
second Caliph asks Kab about the source and make of the
House of God (Kaaba). Kab too gives a detailed reply and
says: Originally, 'Hajar-al-Aswad' was a red ruby which was
brought by Hazrat Adam (A.S.). It's center part was hollow
and empty and....271
Once, when discussions were
held on Arabian poets, Caliph Omar too was present.
He asked Kab: Have you
found any poems in the Torah? Kab replied: 'Why not. I have
seen in the Torah a group from progeny of Ismaeel who knew
their Ingeel by heart and uttering wise words and striking
examples which I think were none other than the Arabs.
Kab al-Ahbar had so much
commemorated the Torah as the Book of God that the Islamic
society too in their contact with Kab, would mention the
Torah as the Book of God.
One day Muawiya asked him:
«Have you found anything on the river Nile in the Torah?»
Kab replied: 'Yes! I swear
by the One who split the sea for Musa (Moses) that I have
seen in the Book of God that every year, God reveals twice
upon Nile as such: God commands you to flow. So, following
this command it flows. Then it is (again) revealed to
the Nile to cease flowing and it stops flowing.
Ibn-Abbass narrates and
says: One day I was in Muawiya's presence when he recited
Verse 86 from Sura Kahf in a very special form. I objected
to this and Muawiya inquired this matter from Abdullah-ibn-Amro
Aas. He in turn substantiated Muawiya's views.
In reply, I said: The Quran
has been revealed in our house i.e. we are worthy enough to
speak about it and not people like Abdullah-ibn-Amro- Aas.
Finally Mmuawiya who at that time had the reign of
government in his hand decided to send someone to Kab and
solve this difference by relying on his view.
In praise of him (i.e. Kab),
Muawiya would say:
«Know that Kab al-Ahbar is
one of the scholars». 275
It was the significance of
this talk that there were only two others whose name would
be mentioned along with the name of Kab.
It was on the strength of
these preliminaries that Kab al-Ahbar had become a great
source of gnosis during Omar-ibn-Khattab's time and much
longer after him. With well-thought plans, he would draw the
Muslims towards the Jewish culture. Through him, the
distorted culture of Judaism would mingle with the pure and
clean gnosis of Islam; and would lay its foot in the Islamic
texts of exegesis, history, biography and hadith; and would
alter the Islamic insight and correct world-view of the
Muslims and would taint them with the superstitions present
What is more regretful is
this that these Jewish superstitions have entered the
authentic books of hadith and most important of all, have
filled Tabari's history and exegesis and tafseer (exegesis)
of Durrul-Manthur, Ibn-Kathir and the like of them. Worst of
all, the Jewish culture of Kab al-Ahbar has also penetrated
from the exegesis of the Caliphate school into some of the
exegesis of the Ahl-e-bayt schooll and to the extent that it
has influenced such sources, it has pushed aside the gnosis
Exegesis like «Tafseer
Abul-Fotouh Raazi» and «Tafseer-e-Ghazor» have brought some
of those traditions of Kab al Ahbar which have not been
inconsistent with thc principles of Islam.
- 249Ibne-Sa'ad / Vol. 7,
Pg. 156 + Tazherat-ul-Hefaz / Vol. 1, Pg. 52 Indian print.
Ibne-Sa'ad / Vol. 7,
Pg. 156 + Tahzeeb-ut-Tahzeeb 8/438 + Al- Asabah 2/298.
1/4 - 2nd edition, Beirut.
of the city of Damascus Vol. 1 / Pg. 110 - Damascus print.
of the city of Damascus 1/147.
Ibne-Asaker 2/122 +
Durrul - Manthur 5/344
Furu Kafi - Book of
Haj; Chapter of virtue of Looking al Ka'aba, Tradition No. 1
Vol. 4 / Pg. 240.
1/402, 2nd edition - research of Muhammad Abul- Fazl Ibrahim.
1/265 & 266 + Tafseer-e-Tabari 23/55.
For example refer to
Tarikh-e-Tabari Vol. 1/115 + Al-Asabah 3/299.
Al-Asabah 3/298 and
Tahzeeb-ut-Tahzeeb / last volume related to translation of
Abu-Huraira's life - history + Al-Bedayah - wah-Niheyeh
Zahbi: Tazkerat al-Hefaz
1/36 + Al-Asabah 4/206
3/240; European print and Vol. 3/332 Beirut print.
Vol. 3/257 - European print and Vol. 3/354 - Beirut print.
Sura Ghafir /8 & 9.
15/295 + Tafseer-e-Durrul Manthur 5/347
Ibne-Rasheeq /25; Egyptian print.
Zaaherat-Fi-Muluk Mesr-wa-Qahera Vol. 1/33.
2/358; Beirut print.
Exegesis like «Tafseer
Abul-Fotouh Raazi» and «Tafseer-e-Ghazor» have brought some
of those traditions of Kab al Ahbar which have not been
inconsistent with thc principles of Islam.
To be continued….
Kab al-Ahbar or Abdullah
bin Saba? (2)
THE GUARDIANS OF ISLAM -
TO KAB AL-AHBAR
Here, it is necessary to
verify the stance adopted by the guardians of Islam like
Amir-ul-Mumineen (A.S.) vis-a-vis Kab and the manner in
which they used to confront this man who was the propagator
of Jewish culture amongst the Muslims. The incident which we
shall narrate below reveals Imam's position and the manner
of his encounter and confrontation with the distortions made
by Kab al-Ahbar:-
reign of government a meeting was once held in the Caliph's
presence. Imam Amir-ul-Mumineen (A.S.) too was present. Kab
was also one of the attendants. The Caliph asked: 'O Kab! Do
you know the entire Torah by heart?
Kab replied: No, but I know
most of it by heart! A person told the Caliph as such:
Amir-ul-Mumineen, ask him about God's whereabouts before the
creation of His Throne. Also, from what He created water on
which He placed His Throne?
Omar said: 'O Kab, can you
answer these questions?
Kab replied: 'Yes 'O
Amir-ul-Mumineen. I have found in the «source of wisdom»277
that before the creation of the throne, God had been
everlasting and eternal and was on top of the rocky
structure of Bait-ul- Muqaddas and this rocky structure too
was placed in the air. When God
decided to create the Throne, He spitted as a result of
which deep seas and roaring waves came into existence. At
that very moment, God created His Throne from some portion
of the rocky structure of Bait-ul-Muqaddas which was beneath
Him and then He sat on it. From the remaining portion of the
rocky structure too, He created the dome of Bait-ul-Muqaddas....
Imam Amir-ul-Mumineen (A.S.)
while shaking the dust off his clothes and uttering words
which signalled the Greatness of God like [Arabic text]
(Glory be to His Creation) or [Arabic text] (Greatness or
Glory be to Allah) or [Arabic text] (Allah is the Greatest)
stood up from his place so as to leave the gathering in the
manner of protest. It is an Arab custom that whenever they
want to express their disgust towards some matter they shake
the dust off their clothes as if to say that such talks
cannot hold good for me. 278
observed this scene he requested Imam to take his seat and
deliberate over the matter of discussion. Imam sat back in
his place and turning towards Kab said:
«Your companions took the
wrong path, distorted the Divine Book and attributed
falsehood to God. 'O Kab, woe be to you if you consider the
rocky structure and air to be with God and thus consider
them to be everlasting and eternal too. As a result, we will
be having three eternal beings. Aside from this, the
Almighty God is far higher than having a place for Himself
and He is not what the pagans say and the ignorants imagine.
Woe to you 'O Kab. The One who creates these magnificent
seas by spitting as you say, is far greater than taking
position on the rocky structures of Bait-ul-Muqaddas279
The hadith is lengthy and
indicates the confrontation of Imam vis-a-vis these deviated
and distorted events and the heresies. However, the incident
of Imam planting date-trees was because of the fact that if
he had lived among people and his presence felt by the
Muslims, his life would have been endangered and there
existed the possibility of his murder with no benefit to
By «source of
wisdom», he means the Torah. This quality is from the
qualities of the Holy Quran
where Kab has utilized it for the distorted Torah.
WHY KAB AL-AHBAR WAS GIVEN
Now it is necessary to
examine the reason behind the endeavours of the Caliphs
(like Muawiya) in bringing up Kab al-Ahbar in the Islamic
society and placing him at a high level of knowledge in the
The first person who
devoted attention to Kab al-Ahbar and compelled him to stay
in Medina and referred to him as one eminent scholar and
leading authority was the second Caliph. The reason behind
his move is not clearly known. However, by examining his
life-history, it appears that he had had a past acquaintance
and familiarity with Judaism and Torah and that this amazing
book often excited him.
Jabir narrates that one day
Omar-ibn-Khattab approached the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) with
a small book which contained some portions of the Torah. The
Holy Prophet was then seated and Omar said: 'O the Messenger
of Allah, this booklet is from the Torah and I have brought
this for you from the Torah. The Holy Prophet kept silent.
Omar continued his talk and wished to recite the Torah. He
was glad that he had attained knowledge and under such an
amazing and joyful state, he wished to recite it before the
Holy Prophet. As a matter of fact he wanted approval and
encouragement from the Holy Prophet. However, the Holy
Prophet on the contrary became angry and every moment his
anger increased. But Omar was unaware. He had the Torah in
hand and unaware of his uncontrollable state, he wished to
recite it for the Holy Prophet. Abu-Bakr was present there
and was aware of the situation. He feared lest a verse in
rebuke or chastisement would be revealed. Thus he came down
harshly upon Omar and said:
«May you perish. Don't you
see how the colour of the Holy Prophet's face has changed
due to severity of his anger and discomfort»?!?
It was only at that very
moment that Omar lifted his head and looked at the Prophet.
Observing the severity of anger on his blessed face he
became terrified and said:
«I seek refuge in Allah
from His wrath and His Messenger's wrath».!
The Holy Prophet said: 'O
the son of Khattab. Do you have doubt, uncertainty and
confusion in your religion? Then, he added:
swear by the One in whose Hand is my soul that I have
brought a «Shariat» (religious law) pure and lucid. Then, he
said: Do not ask anything from the «Ahl-e-Kitab» (i.e. do
not ask your religious affairs from them). They can never
guide you because they are themselves
misguided. If Musa (Moses) (A.S.) was now alive and living
amongst you, nothing was lawful other than his obedience
towards me. 280
What conclusion can we draw
from this tradition which has come down in the authentic
books through various channels? Does it reveal anything
other than this matter that the Caliph had an interest in
the Torah and was looking at it as a marvel? Thus it is not
irrelevant that during his own ruling, he refers to the
Jewish scholars and the gnosis of Torah.
As far as this humble
servant of God is aware, this reality is one of the most
vital factors in magnifying Kab al-Ahbar and bringing him up
in status in the Islamic society. But the matter does not
end here. In this regard, other reasons too had been at work.
Amongst them, those
involved in ruling the government after the Holy Prophet
were not possessing much knowledge and insight in the
recognition of the world and its origin and end. The one
well-acquainted with these matters i.e. the gate of the city
of Holy Prophet's knowledge - Amir-ul-
Mumineen (A.S.) too was compelled to engage in date-palms
and keep himself aloof from the society. The solution lay in
this that people such as Tamim Dari and Kab al-Ahbar whose
heart and soul were quenched with Christianity
and Judaism and could at least answer from their
distorted know-how, the demands of the seekers of knowledge
and also considering that their upliftment did not pose any
danger to the ruling Caliphs, should be raised and accepted
in the society as one element amongst the various elements
of the ruling power.
The historical event which
set forth below is a proof of our reasoning:
A person by the name of
Subaigh Tamimi set out towards the «Aajdan» of the Muslims
i.e. the centres of provinces which was also the army base
of Islam and knocked at every door for putting forth some
questions. His questions were related to the Holy Quran.
This man wandered about in Syria, Alexandria or Kufa
searching for people who had lived in Medina and had seen
the Holy Prophet. This was in order to receive replies from
them for his queries. He goes to Egypt, Subaigh has neither
seen the Prophet nor has he heard his
talks. Now, in pursuit of recognition of the Holy Quran and
for hearing the exegesis of the holy Quran, he travels city
to city until he gets to Egypt. His story is reported to
Amro-ibn-Aas the ruler and governor of Egypt. Amro-ibn-Aas
sends him to the Islamic capital i.e. Medina and reports his
intentions in a letter to Caliph Omar-ibn- Khattab. Subaigh
reaches Medina. The messenger too approaches Omar along with
Amro's letter and hands him the letter. After becoming aware
of its contents Omar says: 'Where is this man? The messenger
replies: He is on the camel's saddle. Omar says: 'If he
flees you will be punished severely.' According to another
tradition, a person approaches the Caliph and says: 'I met a
person who was inquiring about the Holy Quran.' Omar says:
'O God, make me overvome him.
Anyhow, Subaigh Tamimi
comes before the Caliph. When he comes in the Caliph's
presence he has the Holy Quran in hand. When he sees the
Caliph of the Muslims and indispensibly thinks him to be the
centre of Islamic knowledge and heedless of what has occured
he asks: 'O Amir-ul- Mumineen, what is [Arabic text]
(swear by the wind that scatters far and wide)?
Omar says: 'Who are you?'
The man replies: 'I am
Subiagh, the servant of God.' Omar says: I too am God's
servant. Then he folds his sleeves and begins to beat the
man with a stick which was prepared on his commands. He
beats him to such extent that his head stained with blood
or, as per some other tradition, he whipped his back with
twig so much so that Subaigh's back was cut deeply and his
skin was torn apart. Thereafter, he let him go. The injured
and blood- stained man was set free until he was healed of
his wounds. Once again, Omar summons him and repeats the
same event. When for the third time he was brought before
the Caliph in order to be punished, he said: 'If you intend
to kill me, then do that once and for all so that I get
relieved. And if you wish to rectify me, I swear by God that
Ii have been rectified and I will no more discuss such
The Caliph ordered that he
be mounted on a camel without any litter or cover and then
be exiled to Basra near Abu Musa Ashari. In a letter, he
also commanded Abu Musa the governor of Basra to forbid any
person from coming into contact with this man. Similarly,
they stopped giving him the yearly privileges and provisions
which was shared amongst all the Muslims.
Abu Uthman Nahdi says:
«Whenever this man would approach us, even if we were
hundred in number we would move from our places and run away
out of fear of being punished on Omar's command».
At last, things became
worse for this man and life became miserable for him,
Helplessly one day, he approached Abu Musa and appealed him
Abu Musa reported in a
letter to Caliph Omar that this man has repented and his
repentence too is a very sincere one. Omar in reply wrote as
such: So you may now allow the people to come in contact
It is noted down in history
that this man who was an eminent personality amongst his own
tribe was now despised and had lost his prestige and
An incident exactly
opposite to the one above exists in the history of Islam.
This incident is related to the era of Imam
Amir-ul-Mumineen's reign of government. One day Imam goes on
the pulpit and while reciting a sermon says:
«Ask me question. I swear
by Allah that you will not ask me anything of the events
that are to occur till the Day of Judgement except that I
will answer them to you. Also, ask me about the Quran, the
Book of Allah. I swear by Allah that there is not a single
verse but that I am aware whether it has been revealed at
night or during the day; whether it has been revealed in the
mountains or in the desert and....
The narrator says: «Ibne
al-Kawwa was sitting behind me. He stood up and said:
Amir-ul-Mumineen, what is [Arabic text]? This man i.e. Ibne
al-Kawwa was a leading figure amongst the Khawarij and an
enemy of Amir-ul- Mumineen (A.S.)
Ibne-Abbass who was also
present in the gathering says: «Ibne al-Kawwa wished to ask
the same thing which Subaigh had once asked Omar-ibn-
Khattab. This man was under the impression that by setting
forth this question he would be able to discredit Imam
Imam (A.S.) said: «Woe be
to you. Ask questions with the aim of acquiring knowledge
and not for causing trouble and inconvenience or out of
pride and haughtiness. [Arabic text] are winds which blow at
the time of harvest of wheat and barley.» Immediately, Ibne
al-Kawwa asked: 'What is [Arabic text]? Imam replied: «They
are ships sailing over the water.» Again he asked: What is
[Arabic text]? Hazrat said: «They are Angels 282«....
When Amir-ul-Mumineen Ali (A.S.)
who was well-acquainted with the content of Quran was not to
be in the society and instead planted date trees in a farm
outside Medina and make the date-palms flourish or dig the
subterranean canals; and the companions of the Holy Prophet
too were banned from narrating traditions; and when the
ruling powers and rulers were themselves not firm in
knowledge, then there was no alternative but for such people
like Kab al-Ahbar, Tamim Dari and Wahab-ibn-Manbah to come
into the scene.
The factors which were
responsible in raising the status of the Jewish and
Christian scholars and the «Ahl-e-Kitab» in the Islamic
society which consequently made them earn fame are as
First - Those responsible
for bringing up Kab and his likes were familiar and
acquainted with the culture of Ahl-e-Kitab and were looking
at it with wonder and surprise. As a matter of fact, in the
pre-Islamic era the Arabs used to look upon the Jews and
Christians with respect and honour and would reckon them to
be people of the Book, civilization and culture. Such a
state of mentality remaining alive in some of the rulers
became a factor which caused Tamim - Dari and Kab al-Ahbar
to be looked upon with the same honour and respect and be
paid attention as scholars and leading authorities and
figures of knowledge.
Second - It was to the
interest of the ruling power not to propound the sciences of
the Holy Prophet (SAW.A.) which was left behind in the hands
of his companions and/or personalities like Imam
Amir-ul-Mumineen (A.S.) who possessed the entire sciences.
This was so that they could carry on with their rule and
Third: The ruling powers
were themselves devoid of adequate knowledge and were
incapable of the problems which were propounded after the
Holy Prophet's departure.
It was because of these
reasons and factors that Kab, Tamim, Wahab and their likes
laid foot into the arena of Islamic society and their
presence proved to be one of the misfortunate factors in the
distortion of Islam. These people succeeded in distorting
(in various dimensions)
the true Islam and presenting a religion defective with
distortions and superstitions. Such people who in the
Islamic history have become famous as [Arabic text] (story
tellers) are a part of the unknown factors in the distortion
of Islam. I have referred to tens of
volumes of books on history exegesis, biography and 'Rijal'
before I could succeed in laying open a few of their
destructive deeds and affairs. The Islamic history and
exegesis have become defective mainly due to the consequence
of Kab al-Ahbar's affairs. He has spoken on every subject:
God, Day of Judgement, «Hashr» (revivification), «Nashr»
(resurrection), creation, skies, the earth, «Arsh»
(Celestial throne) Ka'aba, Bait-ul-Muqaddas, Sulaiman,
Dawoud, Prophets and Angels and such talks have come out in
the form of exegesis, history and biographies in Islam.
Thus, the Islam which was
supposed to be taken from the house of the Holy Prophet's
Ahl-e-bayt, has been drawn from such sources and origins. In
present times too, the Jewish, Christian and Marxist,
Islamicists have engaged and still engage in recognizing
Islam through these sources.
To be continued….
Kab al-Ahbar or Abdullah
bin Saba? (3)
If they do not bear any
grudge (which they did in the past) they will not be able to
attribute to Islam such fallacies. Rather, they will acquire
something opposite to Islam - a distorted and ruined Islam.
What will the results achieved by us be if in the
recognition of our own religion, custom and way of life, we
refer to the European and Western sources? Will we achieve
anything other than the results of the thoughts and remarks
of Kab and the like of him? Certainly not! Of course, we
thank God that through His Grace and Favour, we have been
able to find the way towards the two basic and fundamental
sources of guidance i.e. the Holy Quran and Ahl-e-bayt
(Household of the Prophet). In the previous discussions, we
examined the one-class traditions from the influential and
insinious agents in the Caliphate school where the one-class
traditions belonged to the «Ahl-e-Kitab» - the Jews and
Christians who had accepted Islam outwardly but had left a
condign impression in the Caliphate school.
Now, we shall examine yet
another set of traditions springing from influential and
canny agents which are the sabotage of the dualists in the
books of the Caliphate school. A manifest example amongst
them is Abdul-Karim-ibn- Abil-Auja. The debates of Imam
Sadeq (A.S.) and his manner of confrontation with
Ibn-Abil-Auja283 has perfectly introduced and
disgraced the latter before his companions and Shi'ites
preventing him from marring the true stand of the Ahl-e-bayt
school of thought. However, his speech at the time of issue
of his death-sentence reveals his concurrence with the
Caliphate school. In his address to the governor of Kufa
(who was appointed the Caliph) he said:
are sentencing me to death while I have registered four
thousand traditions in your books of hadith.
Of course this address was
directed at the representative of the Caliphate school who
passed the death-sentence upon him and hence ended his evil
activities against Islam. 284
In the preface of the first
volume of the book - «One hundred and fifty false
companions» reference has been made to some of this
dualist's friends in the Caliphate school and their
Another corrupted figure
which we may mention amongst the dualists is a person by the
name of Seef-ibn-Omar Tamimi. From him a great number of
traditions has come down in the books of the Caliphate
school and they are connected to the events during the final
stages of the Holy Prophet's (S.A.W.A.) era, the event of
Saqifa, the wars against apostasy and the Islamic conquests
in Persia and Rome up to the battle of Jamal.
Examples of his destructive
activities consists of: Fabrication of the status of
hundreds of companions, or disciples of companions285,
wars, lands, odes and poems, letters and such traditions
which never existed at all. By the Might and Power of God,
we shall set forth in the future discussions, the false and
made-up statistics of Seefin order. We shall mention below
in five sections the first enumerations of Seef's fabricated
personalities which have been envisaged right from the
Islamic history until today.
First section: The
companions of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) - forged by Seef,
Second section: Abdullah-ibn-Saba
and the Sabas - forged by Seef.
Third section: The
narrators of traditions - forged by Seef.
Fourth section: The
commanders of the infidel's army forged by Seef.
Fifth section: The poets -
forged by Seef.
ENUMERATING THE COMPANIONS (OF THE HOLY PROPHET) FORGED BY
In this section, we shall
first of all set forth the list of those fictitious
companions which Seef has forged from his own tribe i.e. the
tribe of Tamim:
Tamim. Seef has introduced him as one of the Shias of Imam
Amir-ulMumineen Ali-ibn-Abi-Talib (A.S).
Abu Mufazzar Tamimi.
Tamimi - as one of the Shias of Imam Amir-ul-Mumineen (A.S).
Husain-ibn-Niyar Hanzali Tamimi.
Haleh Tamimi - as the stepson of the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.)
and son of Umm-ul-Mumineen, Khadija.
Haleh Tamimi - as the stepson of the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.)
and son of Umm-ul-Mumineen, Khadija.
Haleh Tamimi - as the setpson of the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.A.)
and son of Umm-ul-Mumineen, Khadija.
Zarr-ibn-Abdullah Fuqaimi Tamimi.
Up to this Juncture, Seef
with utmost honour, has forged all these companions from his
own tribe i.e. «Tamim» where their life-history has been
examined in the first volume of the Arabic book: «Khamsuna-Wa-
With regards to the
remaining ones which begins from No. 24, he has forged from
other Arab tribes and has predominantly set them below the
above-mentioned Tamimis. Their names, whose life-history has
come down in the second volume are as follows:
(A) The representatives of
the Arabian tribes who had come to see the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A).
or Harith-ibn-Khazrama Zabbi.
(B) The Governor-Generals
and officials who were appointed by the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.)
(C) The messengers on
behalf of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.) or Abu-Bakr:
(D) Companions with similar
Seef has given certain
names to some of his made-up personalities which are similar
to the names of some of the real companions of the Holy
Khuzaima-ibn-Thabit Ansari - other than Khuzaima-ibn-Thabit
Samak-ibn-Kharsha Ansari - other than Abu Dajanah Ansari.
(E) Companions from the
or Yazid Ansari Ash'ali.
the brother of Kab-ibn-Malik Ansari Khazraji.
(F) Companions from various
Hubaish-ibn-Zulehya A'meri Kelabi.
daughter of Huzaifa Fazariya.
(G) The Commanders of the
ah-ibn-Khalid Taiyami-Taiyam Rubab.
Amro-ibn-Wabara, the leader of the tribe of Quza'eh.
Rabbeal-ibn-Amro-ibn-Rabi'ah Asadi Ribal-ibn-Amro.
Tulaiha-ibn-Bilal Qurashi Abdari.
Khulid-ibn-Munzer-ibn-Saavi Abdi Tamimi.
(H) The Companions who
lived during the Holy Prophet's time:
Qarfah-ibn-Zaher Taimi Wa'eli.
(I) The Commanders of the
Asad or Abdul Asood.
Aameri-Another one -.
(J) The Commanders of the
army of Islam in the battles against the infidels:
(K) Those who were called
Companions either because of their meeting with Abu-Bakr or
their correspondence with them:
Sharik Fazaari -
who had approached Abu-Bakr on behalf of his own tribe.
because of bearing witness in response to Abu-Bakr's letter.
Muawiya Uzri -
because Abu-Bakr had written a letter to him.
Zu-Yanaq or the
city of Zu-Yanaq - because of Abu-Bakr's correspondence with
Muawiya Thaqafi -
According to Seef, he was one of the comrades and commanders
of the army.
(L) Those who were called
companions because of their participation in the battles
during Abu-Bakr's era:
(M) Those who were called
companions because of their assistance to Abu-Bakr's army:
Up to here, the
life-history of these ninety-three fictitious figures
created by Seef has been discussed in the two volumes of the
Arabic book «Khamsuna -Wa-Ma'ata-Sahabi-Mukhtalaq» and the
fables which Seef has forgedly attributed to each of them
has been examined and recorded in
their respective biographies. This book, written in Arabic,
has been printed in Baghdad and Beirut and Vol. 1 and 2 of
it has already been translated and printed into Persian
while Vol. 3 is still under print. Discussion about the
fictitious personalities of Seef's creation does not
end here. It rather continues and God-Willing the rest
should be issued in the next volumes.
It is more than one
thousand years since these names have been recorded and
registered as the companions of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.A.)
in the reliable books of the Caliphate school like:
Tarikh-eTabari, Tarikh-e-Ibne Athir, Tarikh-e-Ibne Khaldun
and translators of companions like: Estia'b and Asabah. From
them, conquests, miracles, poems and hadiths have been
recorded in the dignified books of the Caliphate school
where all of these have been the fictitious work of «Seef-ibn-Omar»,
the mendacious dualist. The reason for this matter has been
discussed in the chapter [Arabic text] of Vol. 2 of «Khamsunawa-Ma'
ata-Sahabi-Mukhtalaq"286 and the biography of each one of
them has been separately recorded in the book. It is worthy
for a researcher to first see the discussion and then read
each of their biographies separately.
ABDULLAH-IBN-SABA AND THE SABAS
Other than the
previously-mentioned class of people who according to Seef
were the companions (of the Holy Prophet) and the
biographers have written life-histories for them, Seef has
forged many other figures and fabricated fables for them.
One of them is the fable of Abdullah-ibn-Saba and the Sabas.
Not only has Seef made up a fabricated Abdullah-ibn-Saba in
his mind but has also forged followers for him. Moreover, he
has made up stories for him as well as his followers which
have been recorded and registered in the books of culture
and Islamic history for a period of more than one thousand
years. Seef's brief sayings about Abdullah-ibn-Saba and the
Sabas is as follows:-
«Abdulla-ibn-Saba» was a
Jew from Yemen. During Uthman's era, he apparently accepted
Islam but in secret, used to resort to tricks and deceit
against the Muslims. He used to travel in the big Islamic
cities like Syria, Kufa, Basra and Egypt and propagate
amongst the people that there would be a «Rij'at» (return to
life) for Muhammad (S.A.W.A.) the Prophet of Islam too just
as there would be one in the case of Isa-ibn-Maryam (A.S.);
and just as all the Prophets had legatees, the legatee of
the Holy Prophet too is Ali; that he is the last of the
legatees just as Muhammad (S.A.W.A.) is the last of the
Prophets; that Uthman has usurped the right of this legatee
and hence committed oppression against him. So, there should
be a revolt and the right returned back to its owner.
Seef says: The consequence
of this propagation was that a group of Muslims got provoked
by these instigations and headed towards Medina. There, they
besieged Uthman's house and consequently killed him. All
these acts took place under the guidance and supervision of
the «Sabas» - the followers of Abdullahibn-Saba.
Also, he says: After the
Muslims gave allegiance to Ali (A.S.), Talha and Zubair went
to Basra for avenging Uthman's death. Ali (A.S.) and these
two who were the commanders of the army of the battle of
Jamal began to reach an agreement outside Basra.
The «Sabas» imagined that
if an agreement was reached, then the killers of Uthman who
were the Sabas themselves would be identified and hence
trapped. Thus overnight they plotted to kindle the flames of
war. Following this decision, a group amongst them were
supposed to secretly enter Ali's army while another group
amongst them were supposed to infiltrate Talha and Zubair's
army. During the night, by taking advantage of the darkness,
they were supposed to make the two armies revolt against
each other without letting anybody know about this secret.
Seef says: They fulfilled
this dangerous plot with great success. In the dead of the
night, when the two armies were sleep with hopes of a peace
the group which had infiltrated Ali's army shot arrows at
the opposite army and the other group who were on the
opposite side began to backfire. Consequently, fear
and pessimism gripped both armies and a full-scale battle
Moreover, he says: In this
manner the battle of Basrah which is famous as the battle of
'Jamal' took place even though none of the commanders of the
two armies had any intention of a conflict and did not even
realize the real cause behind this war.
This fabulist ends here the
story of the Sabas and does not say anything about their
fate. The names of some of the eminent personalities which
Seef the liar has reckoned to be amongst the Sabas are as
(f) Muhammad-ibn-Abi Bakr,
son of the first Caliph.
(g) Malik Ashtar
Seef believes that these
eminent personalities and others like them all acquired
their belief in the caliphate of Imam Ali (A.S.) from Ibne-Saba.
Also, these eminent figures did not inquire from Ali whether
Ibne-Saba who believed such and such about him and invited
them towards those beliefs was right in his invitation or
not. Seef says: Hundreds and rather thousands of Muslims at
that time accepted Ibne-Saba's invitation and in this manner
a sect by the name of "Saba'eeya"287 came into
existence in Islam.
In the examination of this
fable so far two volumes of a book entitled «Abdullah-ibn-Saba
and Asateer Okhri» have been written in Arabic and the same
has also been translated and printed in the Persian, Urdu,
Turkish and English languages.
However, the discussion has
not yet come to a close. It is worthy for those reading this
book to refer to the volumes of the books written on
Abdullah- ibn-Saba (which is an analysis of this fairy tale
like story in order to comprehend the reality of Seef's
forgery in bringing Ibne-Saba and the sect of Saba'eeya into
Ali (A.S.) himself
was completely unaware of this matter.
To be continued….