QURAN AND HADITH REGARDING AHLEL BAIT

 
 

 

 

Thaqalain - Part 8

 

 

 

From: "Mohammed Yusuf Jaffer"

To: zanzinet

Subject: Thaqalain part 8

Date: Thu, 16 Apr 1998 11:54:09 PDT

 

 

 

Assalamun alaikum wananet

 

Today we continue with the Thaqalain Part 8

 

 

 

TRADITIONS REGARDING IMAM ALI (A.S) - (III)

 

 

HADITH OF DAAR OR HADITH OF FAMILY FEAST

 

[Shakir 26:214] And warn your nearest relations,
 

 

After the revelation of this verse, the Prophet (saw) has invited his relatives Bani Hashim, and cooked for them food, after that he lectured them and said:

 

 

"O Progeny of Abdul Muttalib! By Allah I do not know an Arab young man has brought for you anything better than I have brought for you, I have brought for you the good of this world and of the next world. Allah has enjoined me that I should call you to it who among you would help me in it so that he may become amidst you my brother, my Wazir, my vicegerent and my successor after me." The Holy Prophet (s.a.w) repeated the last sentence three times, and each time none except Ali (a.s) responded to him saying, "I will aid and help you, O Prophet of Allah!". 

 

The Holy Prophet (s.a.w) called Ali (a.s) to him, embraced him and putting his hand on Ali's shoulder declared, "Know you all, here is my brother, my Wasii, my Wazir and my Khalifa. Hear him and obey him." Some of the books have recorded that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w) address Ali (a.s) saying, "Thou art my successor, my Khalifa (Vicegerent) after me."

 

The gathering broke up and while going away, addressed Abu Talib tauntingly, "Now obey your own son Ali whom Muhammad has placed I authority along with himself."

 

This event is recorded by historians and in traditions, and there is not the least doubt about its authenticity. For reference, see the authorities quoted below :-

 

Mohammed Bin Jareer Tabari in 'Tarikk-ul Umum-wal Maluk', vol II page 217 and 319; Mustadrak of Imam Hakim vol III page 132; Allamah ibn Athir in his 'Tarikh al-Kamil, vol 2 page 22; Abdul Fida in vol 1 page 116; Imam Jaafar al-Askafi Mutazali in Naqd al-Uthmaniyyah; Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal im Musnad, vol 1 page111,159 and 331; Imam Nasai in Khasaisah al-Alawiyah page 6; Suyuti in 'Jamul Jawame vol VI page 392 and 396; al Sirah al Halabiyah, vol 1 p 311;  Shawahid al Tanzil, vol 1 p 371; Kanz al Ummal, vol 15 p 15; Tarikh, Ibn Asakir, vol 1 p 85; Tafsir, Ala al Din al Shafi'i, vol 3 p 371 and others.

 

By western writers Carlye in Hero and Hero worship; Gibbon in Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire; Oakley in History of Saracens; John Davenport in Apology for Mohammed and his Quran; Gilman in History of Saracens and Washington Irving in Successors of Mohammed.

 

 

AYATE WILAYAT

 

[Shakir 5:55] Only Allah is your Vali and His Messenger and those who believe, those who keep up prayers and pay the poor-rate while they bow.
 

 

This verse is unanimously acknowledged to be in praise of Ali. Commentators and traditionists, such as Imam Fakhru'd-Din Razi in Tafsir Kabir, Volume III, page 431; Imam Abu Ishaq Tha'labi in his Kashfu'l-Bayan; Jarullah Zamakhshari in Tafsir Kashshaf, Volume I, page 422; Tabari in his Tafsir, Volume VI, page 186; Abu'l-Hasan Rammani in his Tafsir; Ibn Hawazin Nishapuri in his Tafsir; Ibn Sa'dun Qartabi in his Tafsir, Volume VI, page 221; Nasafi Hafiz in his Tafsir, page 496 (by way of commentary on Tafsir of Khazin Baghdadi); Fazil Nishapuri in Gharibu'l-Qur'an, Volume I, page 461; Abu'l-Hasan Wahidi in Asbabu'n-Nuzul, page 148; Hafiz Abu Bakr Jassas in Tafsir Ahkamu'l-Qur'an, page 542; Hafiz Abu Bakr Shirazi in Fima Nazala Mina'l-Qur'an Fi Amiru'l-Mu'minin; Abu Yusuf Sheikh Abdu's-Salam Qazwini in his Tafsir Kabir; Qazi Baidhawi in Anwaru't-Tanzil, Volume I, page 345; Jalalu'd-Din Suyuti in Durru'l-Mansur, Volume II, page 239; Qazi Shukani San'a'i in Tafsir Fathu'l-Qadir; Seyyed Muhammad Alusi in his Tafsir, Volume II, page 329; Hafiz Ibn Abi Shaiba Kufi in his Tafsir; Abu'l-Baraka in his Tafsir, Volume I, page 496; Hafiz Baghawi in Ma'alimu't-Tanzil; Imam Abu Abdu'r-Rahman Nisa'i in his Sahih; Muhammad Bin Talha Shafi'i in Matalibu's-Su'ul, page 31; Ibn Abi'l-Hadid in Sharhe Nahju'l-Balagha, Volume III, page 375; Khazin Ala'u'd-Din Baghdadi in his Tafsir, Volume I, page 496; Sulayman Hanafi in Yanabiu'l-Mawadda, page 212; Abu Ja'far Askafi in Nagzi'l-Uthmaniyya; Tibrani in Ausat; Ibn Maghazili Faqih Shafi'i in Manaqib; Muhammad bin Yusuf Ganji Shafi'i in Kifayatu't-Talib; Mulla Ali Qushachi in Sharhe Tajrid; Seyyed Muhammad Mu'min Shablanji in Nuru'l-Absar, page 77; Muhibu'd-Din Tabari in Riyazu'n-Nuzra, Volume II, page 247 as well as many others of your notable ulema all have narrated from Sadi, Mujahid Hasan Basri, A'mash, Atba Bin Hakim, Ghalib Ibn Abdullah, Qais Bin Rabi'a, Abaya Bin Rab'i, Abdullah Ibn Abbas, Abu Dharr Ghifari, Jabir Ibn Abdullah Ansari, Ammar, Abu Rafi', and Abdullah Bin Salam, and others acknowledge that this verse was revealed in praise of Ali. This  verse refers to the time that Ali gave a ring to a beggar during ruku' (bowing in prayer). Here also the words are plural out of deference and respect to the rank of Wilaya (guardianship), and to prove that Ali was the Imam and successor to the Prophet. The emphasis of the word "innama," renders the meaning - the decision of Allah - final and fixed, i.e., the decision of Allah that the guardian of the believers should be Allah, His Prophet (Muhammad), and the believers who give charity while praying, the latter referring specifically to Ali.

 

Allama Zamakhshari writes on page 422 of the first of volume of his Tafseer entitled 'Al Kashshaf' in explaining the above quoted verse of the Quran. If it is asked what is the justification for using a plural form indicate a singular, I will say in reply that the plural form is used in many places while singular is meant. The reason here may be that though it stands for a single man, other people to imitate him and not to delay in giving alms to the beggar (like Ameerul Momineen Ali - a.s) who did not wait for completion of his prayer.

 

It is asked, how could Ameerul Mominee (a.s)  have heard the beggar's call for alms when he was in his prayer as it is said that when he engaged himself in prayer, he became so absorbed in it as to become oblivious of his surroundings, then the reply to it is that Sadqa is also an Ibat (devotional act) and what could be better than that an act of devotion is joined up with another act of devotion.

 

The meaning of the word "wali" in such a context is "one who has the top priority in faring with one's affairs." We say "Such and such is the minor's wali." Lexicographers have made it clear that whoever takes charge of someone's affairs is the latter's wali. The meaning of the verse, therefore, is as though Allah says that "the ones who take charge of your affairs and have priority even over your own lives in faring with the latter are: Allah, the Almighty and Omniscient, His Messenger, and `Ali," for in `Ali alone have all these qualities been combined: faith, saying the prayers, and offering zakat even while prostrating in prayers, and for whom these verses were thus revealed. The Almighty has in these verses reserved wilayat for Himself and for both His Messenger and wasi in the same manner. The wilayat of Allah, the Almighty and Omniscient, is general and inclusive. So is the wilayat of the Prophet as well as his wali; it carries the same meaning. It is not possible to apply to it in this context the meanings of "supporter, loved one, etc.," since such a restriction [of application] is groundless, as is quite obvious. I believe this is a quite clear matter, and praise to Allah, Lord of the Worlds.

 

 

HADITH MANZILAT

 

The Holy Prophet (s.a.w) said: "O Ali, you are to me as Aaron was to Moses, except that there will be no prophet after me."

 

(1) Abu Abdullah Bukhari in his Sahih, Volume III, the Book of Ghazawa, Qazwa Tabuk, p. 54, and in his book Bida'u'l-Khalq, p. 180; (2) Muslim bin Hajjaj in his Sahih, printed in Egypt, 1290 A.H., Volume II, under the heading, "The Merits of Ali;" pages 236-7; (3) Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal in Musnad, Volume I, "Grounds for Naming Husain," pages 98, 118, 119; and footnote of the same book, Part 5, page 31; (4) Abu Abdu'r-Rahman Nisa'i in Khasa'isi'l-Alawiyya, page 19; (5) Muhammad bin Sura Tirmidhi in his Jami'; (6) Hafiz Ibn Hajar Asqalani in Isaba, Volume II, page 507; (7) Ibn Hajar Makki in Sawa'iq Muhriqa, chapter 9, pages 30 and 34,

(8) Hakim Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Abdullah Nishapuri in Mustadrak, Volume III, page 109; (9) Jalalu'd-Din Suyuti in Ta'rikhu'l-Khulafa, page 65; (10) Ibn Abd Rabbih in Iqdu'l-Farid, Volume II, page 194; (11) Ibn Abdu'l-Birr in Isti'ab, Volume 2, page 473; (12) Muhammad bin Sa'd Katib Waqidi in Tabaqatu'l-Kubra; (13) Imam Fakhru'd-Din Razi in Tafsir Mafatihu'l-Ghaib; (14) Muhammad bin Jarir Tabari in his Tafsir; as well as in his Ta'rikh; (15) Seyyed Mu'min Shablanji in Nuru'l-Absar, page 68. Many other eminent scholars of yours have narrated this grand hadith with slight variations in words from many of the companions of the holy Prophet, such as: (1) Umar bin Khattab, (2) Sa'd bin Abi Waqqas, (3) Abdullah bin Abbas, (4) Abdullah bin Mas'ud, (5) Jabir bin Abdullah Ansari, (6) Abu Huraira, (7) Abu Sa'id Khudri, (8) Jabir bin Sumra, (9) Malik bin Huwairi's, (10) Bara'a bin 'Azib, (11) Zaid bin Arqam, (12) Abu Rafi', (13) Abdullah bin Ubai, (14) Abu Suraiha, (15) Hudhaifa bin Assad, (16) Anas bin Malik, (17) Abu Huraira Aslami, (18) Abu Ayyub Ansari, (19) Sa'id bin Musayyab, (20) Habib bin Abi Thabit, (21) Sharhbil bin Sa'd, (22) Umme Salma (wife of the holy Prophet), (23) Asma bint Umais (wife of Abu Bakr), (24) Aqil bin Abi Talib, (25) Mu'awiya bin Abu Sufyan, and a host of other companions. In short, all of them have related with slight variation of words that the holy Prophet said: "O Ali, you are to me as Aaron was to Moses, except that there will be no prophet after me."

 

In this hadith the word "Manzila" (Rank) is used in the general sense. The word showing exception clearly proves that the reference is of general significance. The Prophet named Ali along with the word "prophet" and described his Manzila using the phrase 'except that there shall be no prophet after me.' Most eminent ulema and authors have quoted the hadith from the Prophet, who is reported to have said to Ali. "Are you not content that you are to me as Aaron was to Moses except that there shall be no prophet after me?"

 

Some people might have justify if this hadith had been narrated at Tabuk only. But the Prophet repeated the same hadith on different occasions. It was narrated when brotherhood among different individuals among the muhajirs (refugees) was established in Mecca. It was also narrated in Medina when brotherhood was established between the Muhajirin and the Ansar. On each occasion the Prophet selected Ali as his brother, saying, "You are to me as Aaron was to Moses except that there shall be no prophet after me."

 

Among the narrators are Mas'udi (a reliable reporter according to both sects) who writes in his Muruju'dh-Dhahab, Volume II, page 49, Halabi in Siratu'l-Halabiyya, Volume II, pages 26 and 120, Imam Abdu'r-Rahman Nisa'i in Khasa'isu'l-Alawiyya, page 19, Sibt Ibn Jauzi in his Tadhkira, pages 13-14, Sulayman Balkhi Hanafi in Yanabiu'l-Mawadda, chapter 9 and 17, and several others have narrated this hadith. They all say that, apart from the two occasions of establishing brotherhood, it has been narrated on many other occasions as well. Therefore, this hadith is not to be construed in a restricted sense or for a particular occasion only. Its general significance is an established fact. lt. was through this hadith that the Holy Prophet declared on appropriate occasions Ali's succession after him. One of those occasions was the Battle of Tabuk.

 

This hadith proves that Ali possessed three characteristics: (1) The rank of a prophet; (2) The rank of successor to the Holy Prophet; and (3) his superior position among all the companions of the Holy Prophet. Like the Holy Prophet, Ali's followers likened him to Aaron, who was a prophet, was invested with the caliphate of Moses, and was superior to all the Bani Isra'il.

 

During his absence of forty days, Moses did not leave matters to the discretion of his followers. He appointed Aaron, the best man among the Isra'ilis, to act as his Caliph and successor. Similarly, the last prophet, whose religion is most perfect, had even greater reason to protect his people from the chaos of their free will. He preserved the code of religion so that it might not pass into the hands of the ignorant, those who would change it according to their whims. The ignorant people would depend on their own conjecture and create divisions in the matter of law. So, in this sacred hadith the Prophet says: "Ali is to me as Aaron was to Moses," confirming that Ali held the same levels of merit and authority as Aaron did. Ali was superior to the whole umma (community), and therefore the Prophet appointed him his helper and his successor.

 

The Holy Qur'an states that when Moses appointed Aaron his successor, he gathered round him the Bani Isra'il (according to some reports, 70,000 people). Moses emphasized that in his absence they should obey Aaron, his Caliph and successor. Moses then went up the mountain to be alone with Allah. Before a month passed, Samiri incited dissension among the Isra'ilis. He fashioned a golden calf and the Bani Isra'il, having left Aaron, gathered round the treacherous Samiri in large numbers. It had been only a short time before this that the same Bani Isra'il had heard Moses say that during his absence Aaron was to be his Caliph and that they should obey him. Nevertheless, 70,000 people followed Samiri. The Prophet Aaron loudly protested this action and forbade them from indulging in such sinful acts, but no one listened to him. The verse of Sura A'raf states that when Moses came back, Aaron said to him: "Son of my mother! Surely the people reckoned me weak and had well-nigh slain me..." (7:150)

 

The Bani Isra'il themselves heard the clear instruction from Moses, but when Moses went up to the mountain, Samiri seized his opportunity. He fashioned a golden calf and misguided the Bani Isra'il.

 

Similarly, after the death of the Prophet, some people who had heard him say that Ali was his successor, turned against Ali. Imam Ghazali referred to this fact in the beginning of his fourth treatise in Sirru'l-'Alamin. He states that some people returned to the state of their former ignorance. In this respect, there is great similarity between the situation of Aaron and that of Ali. Like many of your own great scholars and historians, Abu Muhammad Abdullah Bin Muslim Bin Qutayba Bahili Dinawari, the well-known Qazi of Dinawar, in his Al-Imama Wa Siyasa, Volume I, page 14, narrates in detail the events of Saqifa. He says that they threatened to burn down Ali's house and they forcibly took him to the mosque and threatened to kill him unless he swore allegiance to them. Ali went to the sacred grave of the Prophet and repeated the same words of the Holy Qur'an which Aaron spoke to Moses: "He (Aaron) said: Son of my mother! Surely the people reckoned me weak and had well-nigh slain me..." (7:150)

 

So according to the Holy Qur'an Aaron did not draw the sword against the people. He assumed silence when they adopted Samiri's Golden Calf as the object of worship because he (Aaron) recognized that he was outnumbered. Similarly, Ali, whom the Holy Prophet pronounced to be the counterpart of Aaron (as we have discussed in detail earlier), was also perfectly justified in assuming patience and forbearance when he had been left alone. The Holy Imam was forcibly brought to the mosque and an open sword was put on his head to force him to swear allegiance (*). Later he went to the tomb of the Holy Prophet and repeated the same words which Allah Almighty has related through the tongue of Aaron. Aaron had said to Moses: "Surely the people had reckoned me weak and had well nigh slain me."

 

(*) I will explain more this one in future

 

To be continued..

 

Wassalam

 

Mohammed Yusuf

  

 

 

Narrated Aisha:
 
 One day the Prophet (PBUH&HF) came out afternoon wearing a black cloak (upper garment or gown; long coat), then al-Hasan Ibn Ali came and the Prophet accommodated him under the cloak, then al-Husain came and entered the cloak, then Fatimah came and the Prophet entered her under the cloak, then Ali came and the Prophet entered him to the cloak as well. Then the Prophet recited: "Verily Allah intends to keep off from you every kind of uncleanness O' People of the House (Ahlul-Bayt), and purify you a perfect purification (the last sentence of Verse 33:33)."

 

 

In addition to what the Prophet (saw) said who are the real “Ahlul Bait”, he made the habit for six or nine months, every day after morning prayer he would passed by by the door of Fatima's house and address them with greeting as these are "MY AHLEL BAIT" and recite this verse of tat-hir 33.

 


 

 



 


 

وَنَجَّيْنَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَكَانُوا يَتَّقُونَ {41:18}

But We delivered those who believed and practised righteousness

 

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وَنَجَّيْنَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَكَانُوا يَتَّقُونَ     اللهم صلى على محد و ال محد.... و عجل فرجهم