Thaqalain - Part 16



From: "Mohammed Yusuf Jaffer"  

To: zanzinet

Subject: Thaqalain part 16

Date: Fri, 24 Apr 1998 10:46:38 PDT




Assalamun alaikum


Today we continue with the Thaqalain part 16





Fatimah with Abu Bakr (r.a) and Umar (r.a) - (I)




When the Holy Prophet returned to Medina, Gabriel revealed the following: "And give to the near of kin his due and (to) the needy and the wayfarer, and do not squander wastefully." (17:26)


The Holy Prophet pondered the significance of this revelation. Gabriel appeared again and informed him that Allah had decreed: "Let Fadak be given to Fatima." The Holy Prophet called Fatima and said: "Allah has commanded me to bestow Fadak as a gift to you." So he immediately gave possession of Fadak to Fatima.


The chief of the commentators, Ahmad Tha'labi in his Kashfu'l-Bayan; Jalalu'd-din Suyuti in his Tafsir, vol. IV, reporting from Hafiz Ibn Mardawiyya; the famous commentator Ahmad Bin Musa (died 352 A.H.) reporting from Abu Sa'id Khadiri and Hakim Abu'l-Qasim Haskani; Ibn Kathir; Imadu'd-din Isma'il; Ibn Umar Damishqi; Faqih-e-Shafi'i in his Ta'rikh, and Sheikh Sulayman Balkhi Hanafi in his Yanabiu'l-Mawadda, ch. 39, reporting from Tafsir-e-Tha'labi, Jam'u'l-Fawa'id and Uyunu'l-Akhbar - all narrate that when the verse "and give to the near of kin his due" was revealed, the Holy Prophet of Allah called Fatima and bestowed the great Fadak upon her as a gift. Accordingly, so long as the Holy Prophet lived, Fadak remained in Fatima's possession. That exalted lady leased the land; its revenue was collected in three installments. Out of this amount she took enough money for food for her and her children and distributed the rest to the poor people of Bani Hashim. After the demise of the Holy Prophet, the officers of the ruling caliph snatched this property from Fatima.


Consequently, one finds that all historians and scholars of tafsir, as well as of hadith, relate that Fatima (A.S.) claimed that Fadak was her property and that Abu Baker refuted her, asking her to provide witnesses to support her claim. She brought 'Ali b. Abi Talib and Umm Ayman, but Abu Bakr did not accept their testimony, considering it insufficient. Ibn Hajar admitted this in his al-Sawaيiq al-Muhriqa (page 21) when he reported that Fatima claimed that the Prophet (S.A.W.)  had given her Fadak as a gift but had no witness to her claim except 'Ali and Umm Ayman. Yet their testimony did not meet the stipulated conditions to be considered as sufficient proof.


Also Imam Fakhru'd-din Razi in his Tafsir-e-Kabir concerning the claim of Fatima; Yaqut Hamawi in his Mu'ajamu'l-Buldan; Ibn Abi'l-Hadid Mu'tazali in Sharh-e-Nahju'l-Balagha, vol.IV, p. 80, from Abu Bakr Jauhari and the fanatical Ibn Hajar in Sawa'iq-e-Muhriqa, p.21, under the heading Shuhubhat-e-Rafza, VII Shubha, narrate that the first claim of Fatima was that Fadak had been a gift. When her witnesses were rejected, she was much pained and said in anger that she would not talk to Abu Bakr and Umar again.


This fact is recorded not only in Shia books, but also in those written by your own prominent ulema. It is recorded in Siratu'l-Halabiyya, p.39, compiled by Ali Bin Burhanu'd-din Halabi Shafi'i (died 1044 A.H.) that at first Fatima remonstrated with Abu Bakr that she owned Fadak and that it had been given to her by the Holy Prophet of Allah. Since witnesses were not available, she was forced to claim her right according to the law of inheritance.






When Fatima (a.s) was forced to claimed her right according to the law of inheritance, Abu Baker brought new obstacle by declaring that he heard the Holy Prophet say: "We prophets do not leave behind any legacy; whatever we leave as inheritance is charity" (i.e., the property of umma).




The purported hadith is unacceptable, there are many reasons for rejecting this hadith. First, it was not an inheritance, but a gift. 


Second, whoever contrived this hadith uttered it without thinking about the words he used. If he had been careful about it, he would never have said: "We prophets do not leave any inheritance," because he would have known that his lying would be exposed by the very wording of this concocted hadith. If he had used the words "I have not left behind any legacy," his attempted hadith would have been more plausible. But when he used the plural "We prophets..."we are obliged to investigate the truth of the hadith and we refer to the Holy Qur'an for guidance. We find that there are a number of verses which tell us that the prophets in fact did leave inheritances. This proves that this hadith is to be rejected outright.




In his Kitab-e-Saqifa the great scholar and traditionist, Abu Bakr Ahmad Bin Abdu'l-Aziz Jauhari, about whom Ibn Abi'l-Hadid says in his Sharh-e-Nahju'l-Balagha that he was one of the eminent ulema and traditionists of the Sunnis; Ibn Al-athir in his Nihaya; Mas'udi in Akhbaru'z-Zaman and in Ausat; Ibn Abi'l-Hadid in Sharh-e-Nahju'l-Balagha, vol. IV, p. 78, quoting from Abu Bakr Ahmad Jauhari's book Saqifa and Fadak in different ways and from a number of sources, some of which refer to the fifth Imam Muhammad Baqir through Siddiqi Sughra Zainab-e-Kubra and some of which refer to Abdullah Ibn Hasan on the authority of Siddiqi Kubra Fatima Zahra and on the authority of Ummu'l-Mu'minin A'yesha and also on the authority of Muhammad Bin Imran Marzabani, he from Zaid Bin Ali Bin Husain; he from his father, and he from his father Imam Husain; and he from his illustrious mother, Fatima Zahra; and many other ulema of your sect have narrated the speech of Fatima before a large gathering of the Muslims. The opponents were stunned when they heard her reasoning and could not reply. Since they had no answer to make they caused a disturbance.


One of the arguments of Fatima rejecting the hadith was that, if the hadith were true, then why were there so many verses about the inheritances of the prophets. She said: "At one place the Holy Qur'an says, 'And Solomon was David's heir.'"(27:16)


About the prophet Zakariyya the Holy Qur'an says: "Therefore grant me from thyself an heir, who shall inherit [*] of me and inherit (also) of the house of Jacob." (19,5-6)


About Zakariyya's invocation the Holy Qur'an says: "And Zakariyya, when he cried to his Lord: 'O my Lord, leave me not childless, though Thou art the best of inheritors.' So we responded to him and gave him Yahya." (21: 89,90)


[*] The important word to note is "who shall inherit." He did not say "Make my son a Prophet." It become clear that the word inheritance is meant in its comprehensive sense, that is, it include material as well as spiritual inheritance. If only the children of a prophet could inherit prophethood then how did Prophets Musa (a.s) and Issa (a.s) became prophets when their fathers were not prophets.


After that she said: "O Son of Abu Qahafa! Is it there in the Book of Allah that you are an heir of your father and I am deprived of my father's legacy? You have committed a great slander. Have you people deliberately abandoned the Book of Allah (the Holy Qur'an) and ignored it altogether? Am I not the descendant of the Holy Prophet? Why are you depriving me of my right? Why are all these verses of inheritance, which are intended for all people in general and for the Prophets in particular included in the Holy Qur'an? Is it not a fact that the verses of the Holy Qur'an shall remain unchanged until the Day of Judgment? Does not the Holy Qur'an say: 'And those who are akin are nearer one to another in the ordinance of Allah...' (8:75)" and: 'Allah enjoins you about your issue! the male shall have the equal of the shares of two females.' (4:12) and: 'Bequest is prescribed for you when one of you approaches death, if he leave wealth, that he bequeath unto parents and near relations in kindness. (This is) a duty for all those who ward off (evil).' Then why have I, in particular, been deprived of my father's legacy? Has Allah revealed some special verses to you, which exclude my father (from his right). Do you know the outward and inner meanings of the Holy Qur'an better than my father, Muhammad, and my cousin, Ali?"


She cried: "Today you have broken my heart. On the Day of Judgment I will file a suit against you in the Divine Court of Justice and Allah Almighty will decide the case justly. Allah is the best judge. Muhammad is the master and lord; our and your promised time is the Day of Resurrection. That day the transgressor will be losers, and your repentance will do you no good. For everything there is an appointed time and you will know before long who will be afflicted with scornful chastisement."




Third, besides this, if the hadith were correct and if Abu Bakr believed that it was the Holy Prophet's ordinance, then why, after confiscating Fadak (which he considered to be charity belonging to the Muslims) did he write a document that the property be returned to Fatima? Later Caliph Umar intervened and destroyed the document.


By now you are probably aware that I never make a claim which I cannot fully support. Ibn Abi'l-Hadid in his Sharh-e-Nahju'l-Balagha and Ali Bin Burhanu'd-din Shafi'i in his Ta'rikh Siratu'l-Halabiyya, vol. III, p. 391, write that Abu Bakr was moved to tears by Fatima's impassioned speech. He wept because of Fatima's plight and subsequently wrote a document stating that the property be returned to her. But Umar destroyed the document.


It is however surprising that the same Umar, who during Abu Bakr's caliphate objected to the returning of Fadak, returned it to its heirs during his own caliphate. Similarly the Amawid and Abbasid caliphs also returned it to the heirs of Fatima.




Fourth, if the prophets do not leave behind anything for inheritance, why did Ayesha and Hafsa ask for their share from the assets of Holy Prophet (s.a.w)? In Sahih al-Bukhari , vol III page 39 and Ibn Hadid in his book 'Sharhe Nahjul Balagha' writes: Ayesha and Hafsa came to see Usman, during his Caliphate, and asked him to give them their shares of what they had inherited from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w). Usman  was stretched on his seat, so he sat up and said to Ayesha : "You and that woman sitting next to you brought a man who cleansed himself with his urine and testified that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w) said, 'We the prophets, do not leave behind any inheritance. If the Prophet truly did not leave any inheritance, why did you deprive Fatima of her legal share?" After that she left him feeling very angry and said, 'Kill Na'sal (i.e Usman), for he has become an unbeliver.'




Many scholars have recorded that when Fatima finished pleading her case, Ali began his remonstrance in the public gathering of Muslims in the mosque of Medina, turning towards Abu Bakr, he said: "Why did you deprive Fatima of her father's legacy, though she was its owner and possessed it during the lifetime of her father?" Abu Bakr replied: "Fadak is the booty of the Muslims. If Fatima produces complete evidence that it is her own property, I will certainly give it to her; otherwise, I will deprive her of it."


The Holy Imam said, "Is it not a fact that when you pronounce a judgment about Muslims, in general, you pass quite a contradictory judgment concerning us?"


"Hasn't the Holy Prophet said that the onus of proof lies on the plaintiff and that of defense on the defendant? You have rejected the judgment of the Holy Prophet and, contrary to religious law, you demand witnesses from Fatima who has been in possession of the property since the time of the Holy Prophet. Moreover is the word of Fatima, who is one of the Ashab-e-Kisa (people of the mantle) and who is included in the verse of purity, not true?"


"If two persons were to give evidence that Fatima had committed some wrong, tell me how would you treat her?" Abu Bakr said, "I would inflict punishment on her as I would any other woman."


The Holy Imam said, "If you did this, you would be an infidel before Allah, because you would have rejected Allah's evidence about Fatima's purity. Allah says 'Verily, Verily, Allah intends but to keep off from you every kind of uncleanness, O you the People of the House, and purify you (with) a thorough purification.' Is this verse not revealed in our praise?"


Abu Bakr said: "Why not?"


The Imam said: "Is it possible that Fatima, whose purity Allah has verified, would lay a false claim to a petty property? You reject the evidence of the purified one and accept the evidence of the Arab who urinates on the heel of his own foot!"


After saying this the Imam returned to his home angry. His protest excited the people. Everyone said: "Truth is with Ali and Fatima. By Allah, Ali speaks the truth. Why is the Holy Prophet's daughter treated so outrageously?"



Ibn Abi'l-Hadid narrates that the people were deeply impressed by the protests of Ali and Fatima and began to cause a disturbance. Abu Bakr, who saw that the two holy persons had already left the mosque went to the pulpit and said:


"O people! Why are you so disturbed. Why do you listen to everybody? Since I have rejected their evidence, they are talking nonsense. The fact is that he is a fox who is betrayed by his own tail. He creates all sorts of disturbances. He minimizes the importance of disturbances and incites the people to create agitation and uproar. He seeks help from the weak. He seeks assistance from women. He is like Ummu't-Tihal with whom people of her own house were fond of fornicating."


To be continued..





Mohammed Yusuf





Narrated Aisha:
 One day the Prophet (PBUH&HF) came out afternoon wearing a black cloak (upper garment or gown; long coat), then al-Hasan Ibn Ali came and the Prophet accommodated him under the cloak, then al-Husain came and entered the cloak, then Fatimah came and the Prophet entered her under the cloak, then Ali came and the Prophet entered him to the cloak as well. Then the Prophet recited: "Verily Allah intends to keep off from you every kind of uncleanness O' People of the House (Ahlul-Bayt), and purify you a perfect purification (the last sentence of Verse 33:33)."



In addition to what the Prophet (saw) said who are the real “Ahlul Bait”, he made the habit for six or nine months, every day after morning prayer he would passed by by the door of Fatima's house and address them with greeting as these are "MY AHLEL BAIT" and recite this verse of tat-hir 33.






وَنَجَّيْنَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَكَانُوا يَتَّقُونَ {41:18}

But We delivered those who believed and practised righteousness


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وَنَجَّيْنَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَكَانُوا يَتَّقُونَ     اللهم صلى على محد و ال محد.... و عجل فرجهم