Thaqalain - Part 15



From: "Mohammed Yusuf Jaffer"  

To: zanzinet

Subject: Thaqalain part 15

Date: Thu, 23 Apr 1998 12:26:33 PDT




Assalamun alaikum


Today we continue with the Thaqalain part 15





Ali (a.s) with Abu Bakr (r.a) and Umar (r.a)




You say that Ali , the Bani Hashim, and the Prophet's companions took the oaths of allegiance to Abu Bakr. You have read the words "paid allegiance," but you have not understood to whom and how they paid allegiance. All your learned traditionists and great historians have written that Ali and the Bani Hashim paid allegiance (outwardly), but that was done after six months, and then only under extreme duress.


Ali and the Bani Hashim did not take the oath of allegiance immediately. Your historians have written that Ali offered his allegiance after the demise of Hazrat Fatima. Bukhari in his Sahih, Volume III, Chapter of Ghazawa Khaibar, page 37, and Muslim Bin Hujjaj, in his Sahih, Volume V, page 154, report that Ali offered his allegiance after Fatima's death. Some of your ulema believe that Fatima died 75 days after the Prophet's death. Ibn Qutayba also holds the same view, but most of your historians claim that she died six months after the Prophet died. It follows, therefore, that Ali's allegiance came some time after 3 to 6 months of the Prophet's death. Mas'udi in his Muruju's-sahab, Volume I, page 414, says "None of the Bani Hashim swore their allegiance to Abu Bakr until the death of Bibi Fatima. Ibrahim Bin Sa'd Saqafi narrates from Zuhri that Ali did not pay allegiance until six months after the Prophet's death, and the people did not have the courage to pressure him except after the death of Bibi Fatima. Ibn Abi'l-Hadid in Sharhe Nahju'l-Balagha relates the same fact. In any case,  your own ulema insist that Ali's allegiance was not immediate but came only after some time had passed and then only when circumstances forced him to do so. Ibn Abi'l-Hadid, in his Sharhe Nahju'l-Balagha, Volume II, page 18, narrates from Zuhri, from A'yesha, who said: "Ali did not offer allegiance to Abu Bakr for six months, and no one of the Bani Hashim offered allegiance until Ali did." Ahmad Bin A'sam-e-Kufi Shafi'i in Futuh, and Abu Nasr Hamidi, in Jam'a Bainu's-Sahihain report from Nafiy, quoting from Zuhri, who said: "Ali did not swear allegiance until six months after the Prophet's death."





The truth is that on the order of Abu Bakr, Umar and others went to Ali's house, threatened him with a sword, dragged him to the mosque and forced him to swear allegiance to Abu Bakr. These facts have been recorded by your own ulema. If you wish, I will relate them. We do not say anything on our own authority. We say only what you say.


(1) Abu Ja'far Baladhuri Ahmad Bin Yahya Bin Jabir Baghdadi, one of your reliable traditionists and historians, writes in his History that when Abu Bakr called Ali to swear allegiance, Ali refused. Abu Bakr sent Umar who went with a torch to set fire to Ali's house. Fatima came to the door and said: "O son of Khattab! Have you come to set my house on fire?" He said: "Yes, this is more effective than anything your father did."


(2) Izzu'd-Din Ibn Abi'l-Hadid Mu'tazali, and Muhammad Bin Jarir Tabari, narrate that Umar went to the door of Ali's house with Usayd Bin Khuza'i, Salama Bin Aslam and a group of men. Umar then called out, "Come out! Or else I'll set your house on fire!"


(3) Ibn Khaziba reports in his Kitab-e-Gharrar from Zaid Bin Aslam, who said: "I was one of those who went with Umar with torches to Fatima's door. When Ali and his men refused to offer allegiance, Umar said to Fatima, "Let whoever is inside come out. Otherwise, I will set the house on fire along with whoever is inside." Ali, Hasan, Husain, Fatima, and a party of the Prophet's companions, and the Bani Hashim were inside. Fatima said: "Would you set my house on fire along with me and my sons?" He said: "Yes, by Allah, if they do not come out and pay allegiance to the caliph of the Prophet."


(4) Ibn Abd Rabbih, one of your famous ulema, writes in his Iqdu'l-Farid, Part III, page 63, that Ali and Abbas were sitting in Fatima's house. Abu Bakr told Umar: "Go and bring these people. If they refuse to come, fight them." So Umar came to Fatima's house with torches. Fatima came to the door of the house and said: "Have you come to burn our house?" He said: "Yes..." and so on.


(5) Ibn Abi'l-Hadid Mu'tazali in his Shahre Nahju'l-Balagha, Volume I, page 134, quoting from Jauhari's Kitab-e-Saqifa, writes in detail about the affair of the Saqifa-e-Bani Sa'ad. "The Bani Hashim and Ali were assembled in Ali's house. Zubair was also with them since he considered himself one of the Bani Hashim. Ali used to say, 'Zubair was always with us until his sons were grown up. They turned him against us.' Umar went to Fatima's house with a group of men. Usayd and Salma were also with him. Umar asked them to come out and swear allegiance. They refused. Zubair drew his sword and came out. Umar said: 'Get hold of this dog.' Salma Bin Aslam snatched the sword and threw it against the wall. Then they dragged Ali to Abu Bakr. Other Bani Hashim also followed him and were waiting to see what Ali would do. Ali was saying that he was the servant of Allah and the brother of the Holy Prophet. Nobody listened to him. They took him to Abu Bakr, who asked him to take the oath of allegiance to him. Ali said: "I am the most deserving person for this position, and I will not pay allegiance to you. It is incumbent on you to pay allegiance to me. You took this right from the Ansar based on your relationship with the Prophet. I also, on the same ground, protest against you. So be just. If you fear Allah, accept my right, as the Ansar did yours. Otherwise, you should acknowledge that you are intentionally oppressing me.' Umar said: 'We will not leave you until you swear allegiance.' Ali said: 'You have conspired well together. Today you support him, so that tomorrow he may return the caliphate to you. I swear by Allah that I will not comply with your request and will not take the oath of allegiance (to Abu Bakr). He should pay allegiance to me.' Then he turned his face toward the people and said: 'O Muhajirs! Fear Allah. Do not take away the right of authority of Muhammad's family. That right has been ordained by Allah. Do not remove the rightful person from his place. By Allah, we Ahle Bait have greater authority in this matter than you have. There is a man among you who has the knowledge of the Book of Allah (The Qur'an), the Sunna of the Prophet , and the laws of our Religion. I swear by Allah that we possess all these things. So do not follow yourselves lest you should stray from the truth.'" Ali returned home without offering allegiance and secluded himself in his house until Fatima died. Thereafter, he was forced to offer allegiance.


(6) Abu Muhammad Abdullah Bin Muslim Bin Qutayba Bin Umar Al-Bahili Dinawari, who was one of your ulema and an official Qazi of the city of Dinawar, writes in his famous Ta'rikhu'l-Khulafate Raghibin wa Daulate Bani Umayya, known as Al-Imama wa's-Siyasa, Volume I, page 13: "When Abu Bakr learned that a group hostile to him had assembled in Ali's house, he sent Umar to them. When Umar shouted to Ali to come out and to swear allegiance to Abu Bakr, they all refused to come out. Umar collected wood and said 'I swear by Allah, Who has my life in His control, either you will come out, or I will set the house with all those in it on fire.' People said: 'O Abu Hafsa! Fatima is also present in the house.' He said: 'Let her be there. I will set fire to the house.' So all of them came out and offered allegiance, except Ali, who said: 'I have taken a vow that until I have compiled the Qur'an, I will neither go out of the house nor will I put on full dress.' Umar did not accept this, but the plaintive lamentation of Fatima and the snubbing by others, forced him to go back to Abu Bakr. Umar urged him to force Ali to swear allegiance. Abu Bakr sent Qanfaz several times to summon Ali, but he was always disappointed. At last Umar, with a group of people went to the door of Fatima's house. When Fatima heard their voices, she cried out 'O my father, Prophet of Allah! What tortures we are subjected to by the son of Khattab and the son of Abi Quhafa!' When the people heard Fatima's lamentation, some went back with their hearts broken, but Umar remained there with some others until finally they dragged Ali from the house. They took Ali to Abu Bakr, and told him to swear allegiance to him. Ali said: 'If I do not swear allegiance what will you do to me?' They said: 'We swear by Allah that we will break your neck.' Ali said: 'Will you kill the servant of Allah and the brother of His Prophet?' Umar said: 'You are not the brother of the Prophet of Allah.' While all this was going on, Abu Bakr kept silent. Umar then asked Abu Bakr whether he (Umar) was not following Abu Bakr's orders in this matter. Abu Bakr said that so long as Fatima was alive he would not force Ali to swear allegiance to him. Ali then managed to reach the grave of the Prophet, where, wailing and crying, he told the Prophet what Aaron had told his brother, Moses, as recorded in the Holy Qur'an: 'Son of my mother! Surely the people reckoned me weak and had well nigh slain me.' (7:150)  After narrating this affair in detail, Abu Muhammad Abdullah Bin Qutayba says that  Ali did not swear allegiance and returned home. Later Abu Bakr and Umar went to Fatima's house to placate her and to seek her pardon. She said: "Allah be my witness that you two have offended me. In every prayer I curse you and will continue cursing you until I see my father and complain against you."


(7) Ahmad Bin Abdu'l-Aziz is one of your ulema. Ibn Abi'l-Hadid writes about him in the following words: "He was a man of learning, a traditionist, a great literary figure." He writes in his Kitab-e-Saqifa and Ibn Abi'l-Hadid Mu'tazali also quotes from him in his Sharhe Nahju'l-Balagha, Volume I, page 9, on the authority of Abi'l-Aswad, who said: "A group of the companions and prominent Muhajirin expressed their indignation at Abu Bakr's caliphate and asked why they were not consulted. Also Ali and Zubair expressed their anger, refused to swear allegiance, and retired to Fatima's house. Fatima cried aloud and made solemn entreaties, but to no effect. They took away Ali's and Zubair's swords and hurled them against the wall, breaking them. Then they dragged them to the mosque to force them to swear allegiance."


(8) Jauhari reports from Salma Bin Abdu'r-Rahman that when Abu Bakr heard that Ali, Zubair, and a party of the Bani Hashim were assembled in Fatima's house, he sent Umar for them. Umar went to the door of Fatima's house and shouted, "Come out, otherwise, I swear I will set your house on fire!"


(9) Jauhari, according to Ibn Abi'l-Hadid in his Sharhe Nahju'l-Balagha, Volume II, page 19, narrates on the authority of Sha'bi: "When Abu Bakr heard about the gathering of the Bani Hashim in Ali's house, he said to Umar: 'Both you and Khalid go and bring Ali and Zubair to me so that they can take the oath of allegiance.' So Umar entered Fatima's house and Khalid stayed outside. Umar said to Zubair 'What is this sword?' He replied, 'I have acquired it for allegiance to Ali.'


Umar snatched the sword and hurled it at the stone inside the house and broke it. Then he brought him out to Khalid. He came back into the house, where there were many people, including Miqdad, and all the Bani Hashim. Addressing Ali, he said: 'Get up! I'm taking you to Abu Bakr. You must pay allegiance to him.'


Ali refused. Umar dragged him to Khalid. Khalid and Umar forced him along the road which was packed to capacity with men who witnessed this scene. When Fatima saw Umar's behavior, she, along with many women of the Bani Hashim (who had come to console her), came out. They were

lamenting and wailing with high-pitched cries. Fatima went to the mosque where she said to Abu Bakr: 'How soon have you sacked the Ahle Bait of the Prophet of Allah. I swear by Allah, I will not talk with Umar until I see Allah.' Fatima showed her extreme disapproval of Abu Bakr and did not speak to him for the rest of her life." (See Sahih Bukhari, Part V and VII).


(10) Abu Walid Muhibu'd-Din Muhammad Bin Muhammad Bin Ash-Shahna Al-Hanafi (died 815 A.H.), one of your leading ulema writes in his Rauzatu'l-Manazir Fi Khabaru'l-Awa'il wa'l-Awakhir, in connection with the Saqifa affair: "Umar came to Ali's house prepared to set it on fire with all its inmates. Umar said: 'Enter into what the community has entered.'"


(11) Tabari, in his Ta'rikh Volume II, page 443, reports from Ziyad Bin Kalbi that "Talha, Zubair, and some of the Muhajirin were at Ali's house. Umar Bin Khattab went there and demanded that they come out. If they did not, he said, he would set the house on fire."


(12) Ibn Shahna, in Hashiyya-e-Kamil of Ibn Athir, Volume XI, page 112, writes in connection with the Saqifa that: "Some of the Prophet's companions, and the Bani Hashim, Zubair, Atba Bin Abi Lahab, Khalid Bin Sa'id Bin As, Miqdad Bin Aswad Kindi, Salman Farsi, Abu Dharr Ghifari, Ammar Bin Yasir, Bara'a Bin Azib, and Ubai Bin Ka'b refused to swear allegiance to Abu Bakr. They assembled in Ali's house. Umar Bin Khattab went there intending to burn down the house. Fatima protested to him. Umar said: 'Enter where all others have entered.'"


These are but a sample of the many historical facts recorded by your own historians. This affair was so commonly known that the poets of old mentioned it. One of your poets, Hafiz Ibrahim of Egypt, says in a poem in praise of Umar: "No other person but Abu Hafsa (father of Umar) could have the courage of addressing the chief of the Adnan Clan (Ali) and his comrades, saying: 'If you fail to pay allegiance, I will set your house on fire and will not leave any inmate of the house alive, even Fatima herself.'"





Finally, if one who abuses the sahaba is an infidel, why did Caliph Abu Bakr, in the presence of sahaba and a gathering of Muslims, abuse the most exalted sahabi, Ali Bin Abi Talib? You praise the merits of Abu Bakr although you should condemn him.


We do not report anything until we have made complete inquiries. Perhaps you should consult Sharhe Nahju'l-Balagha, Volume IV, page 80, where it is recorded that Abu Bakr, taunting Ali from the pulpit of the mosque, said: "He (Ali) is a fox, the evidence of which is its tail. He creates disturbances, minimizes the importance of big disturbances, and incites people to make an uproar. He seeks help from the weak and accepts assistance from women. He is like Ummi't-Tahal (an adulteress in the days of ignorance, as explained by Ibn Abi'l-Hadid) with whom the men of his family were fond of committing adultery."





We aren't the only ones who are shocked at such behavior. Even your own fair ulema are amazed to learn it. Ibn Abi'l-Hadid writes in his Sharh-e-Nahju'l- Balagha, Vol.IV, p. 80, that the utterances of the Caliph filled him with astonishment. He asked his teacher Abu Yahya Naqib Ja'far Bin Yahya Bin Abi Zaidu'l-Basari to whom the caliph's words referred. He said that the statements were not indirect. The reference was explicit. Ibn Hadid said: "If they had been explicit, I would not have put the question." Upon this he laughed and said: "These things were said against Ali." Ibn Hadid repeated the words in astonishment: "Were all those words said against Ali?" His teacher said: "Yes, O son! This is what rulership means."


Resorting to abusive language is the tactic of one who has no convincing reply. All this was done to Ali about whom, as reported by all your leading ulema in their reliable books, the Holy Prophet said: "Ali is with the truth and the truth is with Ali."





 We have quoted it verbatim from Al-Tarikh al-Kamil by Ibn al-Athir who includes it at the conclusion of `Umer's biography among the events of the year 23 A.H., page 24, Vol. 3, and it is also quoted by the Mu`tazilite scholar in `Umer's biography, too, page 107, Vol. 3, of Sharh Nahjul Balaghah;  …The dialogue between Ibn `Abbas and `Umer in which the latter, in a lengthy conversation between both men, asked: "O Ibn `Abbas! Do you know what stopped your folks [from demanding the caliphate] after Muhammad (pbuh)?" Ibn `Abbas narrates saying: "I hated to answer `Umer's question, so I said to him: `If I do not know, the commander of the faithful [i.e. `Umer] nows.'" `Umer said:  "[Some people simply] hated that both prophethood and caliphate be confined to your House; so, they were happy about their scheme. Quraysh sought it for thmselves, and were able to obtain it." I said: "O commander of the faithful! Do you permit me to say something and promise to control your anger?" He answered in the affirmative; therefore, Ibn `Abbas said:

"As regarding your statement, O commander of the faithful, that Quraysh sought it for themselves and were successful in obtaining it, I say that had Quraysh sought what Allah had chosen for them, their choice would have been unobjectionable and unblamed. As regarding your statement that they hated to see both prophethood and caliphate in our House, I say that Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, has described some people to be malicious, saying, `... that is so because they hated what Allah has revealed, so He rendered their deeds vain.'" `Umer then said: "Impossible, O Ibn `Abbas, for I heard things about you which I hate to

believe else your status in my eyes should be reduced." I asked: `What are they, O commander of the faithful? If they are true, they should not lower my status in your esteem, and if they are not, I am capable of defending myself against false charges.' `Umer then said: `It has come to my knowledge that you say that they have deprived you of it [caliphate] out of envy, oppression and  injustice.' I said: `As regarding your statement, O commander of the faithful, that it was oppression, then that has become quite obvious to those who are ignorant as well as to those who are clement. As regarding your statement about envy, then Adam was envied, and we are his descendants who also are envious.' `Umer then said: `Impossible, impossible; your hearts, O descendants of Hashim, have become filled with envy that can never dissipate.' I therefore said: `Wait, O commander of the faithful, do not attribute this to the hearts of those whom Allah has purified with a perfect purification.'"


The second dialogue between both men can be found in Imam Abul-Fadl Ahmed ibn Abu Tahir in his book Tarikh Baghdad, indicating his reliable source to be Ibn `Abbas. It is also quoted by the Mu`tazilite scholar who discusses `Umer in his Sharh Nahjul Balaghah, page 97, Vol. 3 He argued with him in another incident, asking: "How did you leave your cousin?" Ibn `Abbas said he thought `Umer meant `Abdullah ibn Ja`fer; so, he answered: "I left him in the company of his friends." He said: "I did not mean him; I meant the greatest among you, Ahl al-Bayt." Ibn `Abbas said: "I left him exiled, irrigating while reciting the Qur'an." `Umer said: "O `Abdullah! I implore you not to be shy but tell me if he is still concerned about the issue of caliphate." He answered in the affirmative. Then `Umer asked: "Does he claim that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) has selected him for it?" Ibn `Abbas answered: "Yes, indeed; moreover, I even asked my father if there was any statement made by the Messenger of Allah regarding selecting him for the caliphate, and my father informed me that that was the truth." `Umer then said: "The Messenger of Allah held him in very high esteem through his speeches and actions in a way that left no argument nor excuse for anyone, and he kept testing the nation regarding him for some time; nay, even when he was sick [prior to his demise], he wished to nominate him for it, but it was I who stopped him."


In a third dialogue between both men, is quoted by authors of books of biographies in their discussions of `Umer, and we have quoted it here from Sharh Nahjul Balaghah by the Mu`tazilite scholar; so, refer to page 105 of its third volume.  `Umer said: "O Ibn `Abbas! I can see how wronged your friend [`Ali (as)] is." Ibn `Abbas said: "O commander of the faithful, then affect justice on his behalf." Ibn `Abbas said: "But `Umer pulled his hand from mine and went away whispering to himself for a good while. Then he stopped; so, I rejoined him, and he said to me: `O Ibn  `Abbas! I do not think that his people denied him [the caliphate] for any reason other than his being too young for it.' I said to him: `By Allah, neither Allah nor His Messenger regarded him as too young when they both ordered him to take Sürat Bara'a (Qur'an, Chapter 9) from him [from Abu Bakr].' Having heard this, he turned away from me and started walking fast; so, I left him alone."


The dignitaries among the descendants of Hashim often argued likewise. Once al-Hasan ibn `Ali (as) came to Abu Bakr who had seated himself on the pulpit of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) and told him to get down from a place his father was more worthy of. Al-Husayn (as) is reported to have said    similarly to `Umer who was also seated on the same pulpit.[*]


[*] Ibn Hajar has quoted both cases in his fifth maqsad of the verse enjoining kindness to the Prophet's kin, and it is verse 14, of the ones dealt with in Chapter 11 of his book Al-Sawa`iq al-Muhriqa; so, refer to page 160 of this reference. Al-Dar Qutni has quoted the case of al-Hasan with Abu Bakr, and Ibn Sa`d has quoted the case of al-Husayn with `Umer in his biography of the latter in his Tabaqat.


To be continued..




Mohammed Yusuf




Narrated Aisha:
 One day the Prophet (PBUH&HF) came out afternoon wearing a black cloak (upper garment or gown; long coat), then al-Hasan Ibn Ali came and the Prophet accommodated him under the cloak, then al-Husain came and entered the cloak, then Fatimah came and the Prophet entered her under the cloak, then Ali came and the Prophet entered him to the cloak as well. Then the Prophet recited: "Verily Allah intends to keep off from you every kind of uncleanness O' People of the House (Ahlul-Bayt), and purify you a perfect purification (the last sentence of Verse 33:33)."



In addition to what the Prophet (saw) said who are the real “Ahlul Bait”, he made the habit for six or nine months, every day after morning prayer he would passed by by the door of Fatima's house and address them with greeting as these are "MY AHLEL BAIT" and recite this verse of tat-hir 33.






وَنَجَّيْنَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَكَانُوا يَتَّقُونَ {41:18}

But We delivered those who believed and practised righteousness


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وَنَجَّيْنَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَكَانُوا يَتَّقُونَ     اللهم صلى على محد و ال محد.... و عجل فرجهم