The Farewell Pilgrimage
Ten years after the migration (hijrah), the Messenger of Allah [peace and blessings be upon him and his Progeny] ordered to his close followers to call all the people in different places to join him in his last pilgrimage. On this pilgrimage he taught them how to perform the pilgrimage in a correct and unified form.

This was first time that the Muslims with this magnitude gathered in one place in the presence of their leader, the Messenger of Allah [s]. On his way to Makkah, more than seventy thousand people followed Prophet [s]. On the fourth day of Dhu'l-Hijjah more than one hundred thousand Muslims had entered Makkah.


The date of this incident was the 18th of Dhu'l-Hijjah of the year 10 AH (10 March 632 CE).

After completing his last pilgrimage (Hajjatul-Wada'), Prophet [s] was leaving Makkah toward Madinah, where he and the crowd of people reached a place called Ghadir Khumm (which is close to today's al-Juhfah). It was a place where people from different provinces used to greet each other before taking different routes for their homes.

Revelation of Qur'anic Verse 5:67
In this place, the following verse of the Qur'an was revealed:

"O Apostle! Deliver what has been sent down to you from your Lord; and if you don't do it, you have not delivered His message (at all); and Allah will protect you from the people ..." (Qur'an 5:67)
The last sentence in the above verse indicates that the Prophet [s] was mindful of the reaction of his people in delivering that message but Allah informs him not to worry, for He will protect His Messenger from people.

The Sermon
Upon receiving the verse, the Prophet [s] stopped on that place (the pond of Khumm) which was extremely hot. Then he sent for all people who have been ahead in the way, to come back and waited until all pilgrims who fell behind, arrived and gathered. He ordered Salman [r] to use rocks and camel toolings to make a pulpit (minbar) so he could make his announcement. It was around noon time in the first of the Fall, and due to the extreme heat in that valley, people were wrapping their robes around their feet and legs, and were sitting around the pulpit, on the hot rocks.

On this day the Messenger of Allah [s] spent approximately five hours in this place; three hours of which he was on the pulpit. He recited nearly one hundred verses from The Glorious Quran, and for seventy three times reminded and warned people of their deeds and future. Then he gave them a long speech.

The following is a part of his speech which has been widely narrated by the Sunni traditionists:

Tradition of the Two Weighty Things (thaqalayn)

The Messenger of Allah [s] declared:

"It seems the time approached when I shall be called away (by Allah) and I shall answer that call. I am leaving for you two precious things and if you adhere to them both, you will never go astray after me. They are the Book of Allah and my Progeny, that is my Ahlul Bayt. The two shall never separate from each other until they come to me by the Pool (of Paradise)."

briefly, those who narrate this being an occasion (at Ghadir) where this hadith was recited with "Quran and Ahlul Bayt" (NOT QURAN & SUNNAH WHICH IS A LONE REPORT RECORDED BY AL HAKIM) are as follows (This tradition was narrated on many other occasions too including whilst the prophet was in his illness approaching his death but here i will only stick to instances at final pilgrimage) :

Al­Nasa'i narrates from Muhammad ibn al­Muthanna, he from Yahya ibn Hammad, from Abu 'Uwwanah, from Sulayman, from Habib ibn Abi Thabit, from Abu al­Tufayl, from Zayd ibn Arqam, who said, "When the Messenger of Allah (A) returned from the last hajj and came down at Ghadir Khumm....

"Then he declared: 'I am about to answer the call (of death). Verily, I have left two precious things (thaqalayn) among you, one of which is greater than the other: the Book of God and my `Itrah, my Ahl al­Bayt. So watch out how you treat them after me. For, indeed, they will never separate until they return to me by the side of the Pond.' Then he said, 'Verily, God is my master (mawlaya) and I am the wali of every believer.' Then he took `Ali's hand and declared, 'To whomever I am his wali, this one is also his wali. My God, befriend whoever befriends him and be hostile to whoever is hostile to him.'" Abu al­Tufayl says: "I said to Zayd, 'Did you hear it from the Prophet(S)?' He replied, 'There was no one in the caravan who did not see it with his eyes and hear it with his ears,'"

Among others who have recorded hadith thaqlain in their books in reference to the last surmon at ghadir are:

1) Al-Bukhari, al­Ta'rikh al­kabir, iii, 96;
2) Muslim, Sahih, bab fada'il `Ali, no. 2408;
3) Ahmad, Musnad, iii, 17, iv, 366;
4)`Abd ibn Humayd, Musnad, no. 265;
5) Ibn Sa`d, and
6) Abu Ya`la from Abu Sa`id, as mentioned in Jam` al­jawami` and Kanz al­`ummal;
7) Ishaq ibn Rahwayh, in his Sahih., as mentioned by Ibn Hajar in al­Matalib al­`aliyah, iv, 65, no. 1873, where he states that its isnad is sahih, and also by al-Busayri in Ithaf al­sadah (MS in Topcopi Library, vol. 3, F.55b) who, too, considers the isnad as sahih;
8) Ibn Khuzaymah, Sahih, MS in Topcopi Library, F.240;
9) al­Darimi, Sunan, ii, 310, no. 2319;
10) Abu Dawud, Sunan, as mentioned in Sibt ibn al­Jawzi,Tadhkirat khawass al­'ummah, 322;
11) Abu 'Uwwanah, Musnad, as mentioned in al­Shaykhani, al­Sirat al­sawi;
12) al­Bazzaz, from Umm Hani, as mentioned in Wasilat al­ma'al;
13) Ibn Abi 'Asim, Kitab al­Sunnah, 629, no. 1551, 630, no. 1555, 629, no. 1551;
14) al­Ya`qubi, Ta'rikh, ii, 112;
15) al­Baladhuri, Ansab al­'ashraf, 110, no. 48, the biographical account of `Ali (A);
16) al­Hafiz al­Hasan ibn Sufyan al­Nasawi, the author of Musnad, from Hudhayfah ibn Usayd, as mentioned by Abu Nu`aym, al­Hilyah, i, 355,
17) al­Fasawi, al­Ma`rifah wa al­ta'rikh, i, 536;
18) Ibn Jarir al­Tabari, from Hudhayfah ibn Usayd, Zayd ibn Arqam (with al­Nasa'i's wording as well as with the wording of Muslim), Abu Sa`id al­Khudri, as cited in Jam` al­jawami`, ii, 357, 395, Kanz al-`ummal, 12911, xiii, 36441, 36340, 37620, 37621, 36341, Jami` al-'ahadith, vii, 14523, 15112, 15122, 15113, iv, 7773, 8072, 8073;
19) al­Dulabi, al­Dhurriyyat al­tahirah, no. 228;
20) al­Hafiz al­Tahawi, Mushkil al 'athar, ii, 307, iv, 368;
21) al­Hakim al­Tirmidhi, Nawadir al-'usul, from Hudhayfah ibn Usayd;
22)al­Tabarani, al­Mu`jam al­kabir, iii, 2679, 2681, 2683, 3052, v, 4969, 4970, 4971, 4986, 5026, 5028;
23) al­Hakim, al­Mustadrak `ala al­Sahihayn, iii, 109, 110 where he expressly states, as mentioned above, that the tradition is sahih in accordance with the criteria of al­Bukhari and Muslim; al­Dhahabi has confirmed his judgement;
24) Abu Nu`aym, Hilyat al­'awliya', i, 355, ix, 64;
25) al­Bayhaqi, al­Sunan al­kubra, ii, 148, vii, 30, x, 114;
26) al­Khatib, Ta'rikh Baghdad, viii, 442;
27) Ibn al­Maghazili, Manaqib Amir al­Mu'minin (A), 23;
28) Ibn `Asakir, Ta'rikh Dimashq, ii, 45, no. 547, the biographical account of `Ali (A), and v, 436 of Badran's edition in the biographical account of Zayd ibn Arqam;
29) al­Baghawi, Masabih al­Sunnah, ii, 205 and Sharh al­Sunnah (MS in Topcopi Libary, vol. 2, F. 718), bab Manaqib Ahl al­Bayt;
30) Ibn al­'Athir, Usd al­ghabah, iii, 92 in the biographical account of 'Amir ibn Layla, no. 2727;
31) Ibn Hajar, al­'Isabah in the biographical account of 'Amir;
32) al-Mizzi, Tuhafat al­'ashraf, iii, 203, no. 3688 from Muslim and al­Nasa'i;
33) al­Diya' al­Muqaddisi, al­Mukhtarah, as cited by al­Samhudi and al­Sakhawi;
34) Ibn Taymiyyah, Minhaj al­Sunnah, iv, 85;
35) al-Dhahabi, Talkhis al­Mustadrak, iii, 109;
36) Ibn Kathir, al­Bidayah wa al­nihayah, v, 209, vi, 199, from al­Nasa'i, where he quotes al­Nasa'i's statement that this narration is sahih;
37) al­Khazin, Tafsir under verses 42:23 and 3:103;
38) al­Mulla, Wasilat al­muta`abbidin, v, 199;
39) al-Haythami, Majma` al­zawa'id, ix, 163 from Zayd, 164 from Hudhayfah.

Acknowledgement of Authority
Then the Messenger of Allah continued:

"Do I not have more right over the believers than what they have over themselves?"
People cried and answered:

"Yes, O' Messenger of God."

Text (nass) of the Designation
Then followed the key sentence denoting the clear designation of 'Ali as the leader of the Muslim ummah. The Prophet [s] held up the hand of 'Ali and said:

"For whoever I am his Leader (mawla), 'Ali is his Leader (mawla)."

This is the famous tradition, also mentioned in the narration given by al­Hakim in Mustadrak `ala al­Sahihayn (vol. iii, pp. 109­110), quoted in the section "On Some Sahih Versions of the Hadith" in the present article, in which the Prophet (S) while returning from his last pilgrimage stopped the entire caravan at Ghadir Khumm and made the announcement:

Of whomever I am his master, `Ali also is his master (mawla).

This is also a mutawatir tradition about which al­`Allamah al­'Amini wrote his great work al­Ghadir fi al­Kitab wa al­Sunnah wa al­'adab. Among the many Sunni traditionists who have recorded this tradition in their works are:

* Al­Tirmidhi in his Sahih (Bulaq, 1292), ii, 298;
* Sunan Ibn Majah (Matba`at al­Faruqi, Delhi), in "bab * Fada'il ashab Rasul Allah (S)" from al­Bara' ibn `Azib and Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas;
* Al­Hakim in Mustadrak (Hyderabad, 1313) from Zayd ibn Arqam (iii, 109, 533), Sa`d ibn Malik (iii, 116), from Rifa`ah ibn Ayas al­Dabbi from his father from his grandfather (iii, 371), and from Buraydah al­'Aslami; (iii, 110; ii, 129);
* Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal in his Musnad, al­Matba`at al­Maymaniyyah, Egypt, 1313, from al­Bara' ibn `Azib (iv, 281), Buraydah al­'Aslami (v, 347, 350, 358), Zayd ibn Arqam (iv, 372, iv, 368, v, 307), Ibn `Abbas (i, 330), Abu al­Tufayl (iv, 270) and `Ali ibn Abi Talib (A) (i, 84, 88, 118, 139, 152, v, 307, 366, 419);
* Abu Nu`aym al­'Isfahani; in Hilyat al­'awliya' (Egypt: Matba`at al­Sa`adah, 1351) iv, 23, v, 26;
* Fakhr al­Din al­Razi; in al­Tafsir al­Kabir (Dar Tiba`at al­'Amirah) under the verse 5:67;
* Al­Khatib al­Baghdadi, in Ta'rikh Baghdad (Matba`at al­Sa`adah, 1360), vii, 377, viii, 290, xii, 343, xiv, 236;
* Al­Nasa'i in Khasa'is (Matba`at al­Taqaddum al­`llmiyyah, Egypt, 1348), pp.4, 21, 22, 23, 25, 26, 40;
* Al­Muhibb al­Tabari, in al­Riyad al­nadirah (Matba`at al­'Ittihad, Egypt, 1st ed.), ii, 169, 170, 172, 203 and Dhakha'ir al­`uqba (Egypt 1356), 86;
*Ibn Hajar al­`Asqalani in al­Sawa'iq al­muhriqah (al­Matba`at al­Maymaniyyah, Egypt; 1312), pp. 25, 26;
* `Ali al­Muttaqi al­Hindi in Kanz al­`ummal (Hyderabad, 1312), i, 48, vi, 83, 153, 154, 390, 397, 398, 399, 403,405, 406, 407;
* Ibn Hajar al­`Asqalani in al­'lsabah (Calcutta, 1853 A.D.), i, part one, 57, 319; iii, part one, 29; iv, part one, 14, 16, 61, 143, 169, 182; vi, 223, vii, part one, 78, 156;
* Ibn al­'Athir in Usd al­ghabah (al­Matba`at al­Wahbiyyah, Egypt, 1285), i, 308, 367, 368, ii, 307, 233, iii, 92, 93, 321, 374, iv, 28, v, 205, 276, 383;
* Ibn Qutaybah in al­'Imamah wa al­siyasah (Matba`at al­Futuh al­'Adabiyyah, 1331), 93;
* Al­Tahawi in Mushkil al­'athar (Hyderabad, 1333), ii, 307;
*Al­Manawi in Fayd al­Qadir (Egypt, 1356), vi, 218, 358 and Kunuz al­haqa'iq (Istanbul, 1285), 92;
* Al­Haythami Majma` al­zawa'id (Egypt, 1352), vii, 17, ix 103, 104, 105, 106,107, 108, 119, 163, 164;
* `Ali ibn Sultan Muhammad al­Qari in Mirqat al­mafatih (al­Matba`at al­Maymaniyyah, Egypt, 1309), v, 568.

[In some other narrations the word used was wali rather than mawla - with the same implication]

The Prophet [s] continued:

"O' God, love those who love him, and be hostile to those who are hostile to him."

Revelation of Qur'anic Verse 5:3
Immediately after the Prophet [s] finished his speech, the following verse of the Qur'an was revealed:

"Today I have perfected your religion and completed my favour upon you, and I was satisfied that Islam be your religion." (Qur'an 5:3)
(this fact has been narratted through 35 different chains of transmission)
The above verse clearly indicates that Islam without clearing up matter of leadership after Prophet [s] was not complete, and completion of religion was due to announcement of the Prophet's immediate successor.

Oath of Allegiance
After his speech, the Messenger of Allah [s] asked everybody to give the oath of allegiance to 'Ali [a] and congratulate him. Among those who did so was 'Umar b. al-Khattab, who said:
"Well done Ibn Abi Talib! Today you became the Leader (mawla) of all believing men and women."

(this fact has been narrated through 76 different chains of transmision)

Number of People in Ghadir Khumm
Allah ordered His Prophet [s] to inform the people of this designation at a time of crowded populous so that all could become the narrators of the tradition, while they exceeded a hundred thousand.

Narrated by Zayd b. Arqam: Abu al-Tufayl said: "I heard it from the Messenger of Allah [s], and there was no one (there) except that he saw him with his eyes and heard him with his ears."

I hope this familiarises people with the events of the last sermon of the Prophet as recorded in hadith and history, and not mumbo jumbo.

Finally, among people who have narrated the event of ghadir in detail are :

1. Imam Fakhru'd-Din Razi - Tafsir-e-Kabir Mafatihu'l-Ghaib.

2. Imam Ahmad Tha'labi - Tafsir-e-Kashfu'l-Bayan.

3. Jalalu'd-Din Suyuti - Tafsir-e-Durru'l-Manthur.

4. Abu'l-Hasan Ali Bin Ahmad Wahidi Nishapuri - Asbabu'n-


5. Muhammad Bin Jarir Tabari - Tafsiru'l-Kabir.

6. Hafiz Abu Nu'aim Ispahani - Ma Nazal Mina'l-Qur'an fi Ali and


7. Muhammad Bin Isma'il Bukhari - Ta'rikh, Vol.1, p.375.

8. Muslim Bin Hajjaj Nishapuri - Sahih, Vol.2, p.325.

9. Abu Dawud Sijistani - Sunan.

11. Hafiz Ibnu'l-Iqda - Kitabu'l-Wilaya.

12. Ibn Kathir Shafi'i Damishqi - Ta'rikh.

13. Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal - Vol.4, pp.281&371.

14. Abu Hamid Muhammad Bin Muhammad Al-Ghazali - Sirru'l-Alamin.

15. Ibn Abdu'l-Birr - Isti'ab.

16. Muhammad Bin Talha Shafi'i - Matalibu's-Su'ul, p.16.

17. Ibn Maghazili Faqih Shafi'i - Manaqib.

18. Nuru'-d-Din Bin Sabbagh Maliki - Fusulu'l-Muhimma.

19. Husain Bin Mas'ud Baghawi - Masabihu's-Sunna.

20. Abu'l-Mu'ayyid Muwafiq Bin Ahmad Khatib Khawarizmi - Manaqib.

21. Majdu'd-Din Bin Athir Muhammad Bin Muhammad Shaibani -am'u'l-Usul.

22. Hafiz Abu Abdu'r-Rahman Ahmad Bin Ali Nisa'i - Khasa'isu'l-Alawi and Sunan.

23. Sulayman Balkhi Hanafi - Yanabiu'l-Mawadda, Ch. IV.

24. Shahabu'd-din Ahmad Bin Hajar Makki - Sawa'iq Muhriqa and Kitabu'l-Manhu'l-Malakiyya, particularly Sawa'iq, Part 1, p.25. In spite of his extreme fanaticism, he says: "This is a true hadith; its veracity cannot be doubted. Verily it has been narrated by Tirmidhi, Nisa'i and Ahmad, and if studied, its sources are sound enough."

25. Muhammad Bin Yazid Hafiz Ibn Maja Qazwini - Sunan.

26. Hafiz Abu Abdullah Muhammad Bin Abdullah Hakim Nishapuri-Mustadrak.

27. Hafiz Sulayman Ibn Ahmad Tabrani - Ausat.

28. Ibn Athir Jazari - Usudu'l-Ghaiba.

29. Yusuf Sibt Ibn Jauzi - Tadhkiratu'l-Khasa'isu'l-Umma, p. 17.

30. Abu Umar Ahmad Bin Abd Rabbih - Iqdu'l-Farid.

31. Allama Samhudi - Jawahiru'l-Iqdain.

32. Ibn Taimiyya Ahmad Bin Abdu'l-Halim - Minhaju's-Sunna.

33. Ibn Hajar Asqalani - Fathu'l-Bari and Tahdhibu't-Tahdhib.

34. Abdu'l-Qasim Muhammad Bin Umar Jarullah Zamakhshari - Rabiu'l-Abrar.

35. Abu Sa'id Sijistani - Kitabu'd-Darayab Fi hadithi'l-Wilaya.

36. Ubaidullah Bin Abdullah Haskani - Du'atu'l-Huda Ila Ada Haqqi'l-Muwala.

37. Razin Bin Mu'awiya Al-Abdari - Jam Bainu's-Sahihi's-Sitta.

38. Imam Fakhru'd-din Razi says in Kitabu'l-Arba'in that the whole Community unanimously confirms this hadith.

39. Muqibili - hadithu'l-Mutawatira.

40. Suyuti - Ta'rikhu'l-Khulafa.

41. Mir Seyyed Ali Hamadani - Mawaddatu'l-Qurba.

42. Abul Fath Nazari - Khasa'es'u'l-Alavi

43. Khwaja Parsa Bukhari - Faslu'l-Khitab

44. Jamaluddin Shirazi - Kitabu'l-Araba'in

45. Abdul Ra'ufu'l-Manavi - Faizu'l-Qadir fi Sharh-i-Jame'u's-Saghir

46. Muhammad bin Yusuf Ganji Shafi'i - Kifayatu't-Talib, Part. 1

47. Yahya Bin Sharaf-Nauvi - Tehzibu'l-Asma wa'l-Lughat

48. Ibrahim bin Muhammad Hamwaini - Fara'adu's-Simtoun

49. Qazi Fazlullah bin Ruzhahan - Ibtalu'l-Batil

50. Shamsuddin Muhammad bin Ahmad Sharbini - Siraju'l-Munir

51. Abul Fath Shahristani Shafi'i - Milal wa'n-Nihal

52. Hafiz Abu Bakr Khatib Baghdadi - Tarikh

53. Hafiz Ibn Asakir abul Qasim Damishqi - Tarikh-i-Kabir

54. Ibn Abi'l-Hadid Mutazali - Sharhe Nahju'l-Balagha

55. Ala'uddin Samnani -Urwatu'l-Wuthqah

56. Ibn Khaldun - Muqaddima

57. Molvi Ali Muttaqi Hindi - Kanzu'l-Ummal

58. Shamsuddin Abul Khair Damishqi - Asnu Matalib

59. Syed Sharif Hanafi Jurjani - Sharh-i-Mawaqit

60. Nizamuddin Nishapuri - Tafsir-i-Ghara'ibu'l-Qur'an


وَنَجَّيْنَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَكَانُوا يَتَّقُونَ {41:18}

But We delivered those who believed and practised righteousness


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وَنَجَّيْنَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَكَانُوا يَتَّقُونَ     اللهم صلى على محد و ال محد.... و عجل فرجهم