The life of Imam Hussein (A.S)
Name - Husain
- Sayyid-ush-Shohada (Leader of Martyrs)
3rd Shaban 4 AH at Medina
Father's Name -
Ali ibne abu Talib
Fatima (Daughter of the Holy Prophet)
Martyred - at the
age of 57 years, in Kerbala, on 10th Muharram 61 AH by
and his ruthless army.
Buried - in Kerbala
Imam Hussein (A.S) is
the second child of Imam Ali (A.S) and Hazrat Fatema Zahra (A.S). The holy
Imam was born in the city of Medina on the third or fifth Sha'ban in the
fourth year of Hegira.
His Kunyat (title) was
Abu Abdullah and from amongst his titles are Rashid, Tayyeb, Wafi, Zaki,
Mubarak, Sebt and Sayyed.
The holy Imam passed
the process of his growth and development in the
companionship of his
holy grand father, the Holy Prophet (S,A) for less than seven years and for
thirty years, he was in the company of his holy father, Hazrat Amir - ul -
Momenin Ali (A.S). In the year 50 A.H., after the martyrdom of his
innocent brother, Imam Hassan (A.S), he attained the exalted position of
Imamat of the Shiites.
The Imamate of the holy
Imam coincided with the illegimate government of Moawiya. As Imam Hassan
(A.S) was forced to accept a peace agreement with the accursed son of Abu
Sufyan, Imam Hussain (A.S) also continued and respected the peace
agreement concluded by his holy brother. With the sacrifices of
Imam Hasan (A.S), the truth and falsehood had been differentiated and
recognized by the Muslims and the reality of Islam had not faced a clear fear
The real fear and
danger commenced from the time when Moawiya in the year 59 A.H. took this decision
to make his accursed son Yazid as his caliph and successor. For
attaining confidence for the manifestation of this evil matter, he took steps
to take allegiance for his wicked son during his rule.
Moawiya was the first
person who gave his own allegiance to his own son. Ibn Saad Narrates in
his book Tabaqat . " HUSSAIN Ibn Ali (A.S) was from those people who did
not pay allegiance to Yazid". He continues , " with the death of Moawiya in the
year 60 A.H., his son Yazid sat on the chair of Caliphate and the
people paid their allegiance to him.
Then, Yazid sent a
letter to the governor of Medina and said, " call the
people and take their
allegiance. Start from the elders of Quraish and
commence from Hussain
Ibn Ali (A.S). When the governor of Medina asked Imam Hussain (A.S) to give
his allegiance, the holy Imam (A.S) replied, " we are from the household of
Nabuwwat and the family of Rasalat." Yazid is a lewd person, wine drinker
and a murderer. A person like me can never pay allegiance to a person
like him. And if this nation is going to face rulers like Yazid, then the
trumpet of extinction of Islam will be blown.
When Imam Hussain (AS)
saw the situation in Medina as complicated and upside down, he did not
consider it permissible to stay anymore in Medina and on Sunday, two days
remaining for the end of Rajab 60 A.H, he left for Mecca along with his Family
members and kinds folks.
The holy Imam, in a
letter to his brother, Mohammed Ibn Hanafiyya, writes about the aim of his
departure from Medina, thus the reality is that I have not departed (Medina)
due to insobriety or stubbornness and spreading corruption or
falsehood. It is not but that I have left for reforming and rectifying the nation
of my grandfather Holy Prophet (S.A). I have decided to perform Amr Bil
Mahroof ( enjoining good deeds) and nahi Anil Munkar ( forbidding evil deeds)
and to practice as per the ways of my grand father and father Ali Ibn Abi
After five days, Imam
Hussein (A.S) reached Mecca on the night of Friday, the 3rd of Sha'ban. The people of Kufa had
heard about the death of Moawiya and the refusal of Imam Hussein (A.S) in
paying allegiance to Yazid. They wrote numerous letters for Imam
Hussain (A.S) and pledged their support for him. And they invited the holy Imam
to the city of Kufa.
They wrote , " We have
waited for you and have not pledged our allegiance to any body, we shall
sacrifice our lives in your path. We do not participate in the Jumah prayers as
well as the congregational prayers for your sake". In reply to their
petition and request, Imam Hussein (A.S) deputed Muslim Ibn Aqil towards Kufa
in the middle of the holy month of Ramazan, " Go and visit the people of
Kufa. If whatever they have written is true, then inform me so that I shall also
Muslim reached Kufa on
the 5th of Shawwal. When the news of his arrival spread every where,
twelve thousand people, and in another narration, eighteen thousand
people swear allegiance to him. He reported this matter for Imam Hussein (A.S)
and invited him to come to Kufa.
The reports of Kufa
reached to Yazid. In the first reaction, he dismissed
No'man Bin Bashir , the
governor of Kufa and replaced him with Obaidullah Bin Ziyad. He
instructed him to kill Muslim Ibn Aqil. On the other hand, he mobilized his
mercenaries to subject Imam Hussain (A.S) in a sudden attack and to kill him. When
Imam Hussain (A.S) became aware of the evil plot of his assassination, he
ended the ceremonies of Hajj in an helpless and compulsive situation.
He did it to protect the sanctity and sacredness of the Holy Kaba. On the
eight of 2il Hajjah, 60 A.H., he left Mecca for Iraq. After the episode of
Kerbala, Ibn Abbas in a letter to Yazid says, " I shall never forget that you
banished Hussain Ibn Ali from the Harem (Mausoleum) of the Holy Prophet (S.A)
to the House of the Almighty. Then, you send your mercenavies in a hidden
manner to suddenly kill him. Then, you drove him from the House of the
Almighty to Kufa. During the past and the present, he was the most loved and
respected person amongst the people of Medina . If he would reside in Mecca,
he would not allow bloodsheds in it. He was the most respected and his order
would be carried out and obeyed by the people of these two places in
Mecca and Medina.
But, he did not like
that the sanctity and sacredness of these two places of the Almighty and the
Holy Prophet (S.A) be broken. He consided it big and holy those things which
you did not consider it while deputing your mercenaries to search
for him and kill him in these two holy places.
Resorting to deceive
and stratagem, Obaidullah Ibn Ziyad arrested Muslim Ibn Aqil and his loyal
friend Hani Ibn Orwa who had sheltered him. He martyred them in a heart
breaking manner. And as he was knowing that Imam Hussain (A.S) was going towards
Kufa, he mobilized an army and under the leadership of Hurr Ibn Yazid
Riyahi, he dispatched them to an area called Qadesiya to watch and keep in view
the movements of the small army of Imam Hussain (A.S) Hurr Ibn Yazid
met Imam Hussain (A.S) in an area called Sheraf and some discussions were
exchanged between them. Imam Hussain (A.S) showed to Hurr two saddle like
weight of letters of the Kufian people inviting him to visit Kufa.
He continued his way
... till the second of Moharam, 61 A.H., he reached a place called Nainawa. It was in this place
that the messenger of Ziyad arrived and gave a letter to Hurr Ibn Yazid. The
contents of the letter was as follows: When this letter reaches you and
our messenger comes to you, treat Imam Hussain (A.S)
in a harsh and violent
manner. Bring him down in a place where there is no fort nor any habitation
and water. As per the instructions
of Ibn Ziyad, Hurr Ibn Yazid stopped the caravan of Imam Hussain (A.S) in a
place called Kerbala.
On the next day, Omar
Ibn Saad, the messenger of Ibn Ziyad entered with four thousand fighters. It is noteworthy to
mention that Hurr Ibn Yazid expressed regret and repentance for his past
deeds. He entered the circle of the followers of Imam (A.S) and attained
the high status of martyrdom in the defense of his holy Imam.
Three days before
Ashura, Omar Ibn Saad delegated and send five hundred mounted fighters on
horseback to the banks of Furat so that the caravan of Imam Hussain (A.S)
should not have water. On the ninth of Ashura, Imam Hussain (A.S) and his
followers were fully surrounded and besieged. The enemies became certain
that there was no helper or support for the holy and innocent Imam (A.S).
On the evening of
Tasooha, the command of attack was issued by the enemy. When Imam Hussain (A.S)
saw the movement of the enemy, he called his brother Abbas Ibn Ali and said,
" May I be sacrificed for you, ride and go towards them. When you meet
them (the enemy) tell them, what has happened to you and what do you wish to do
with us ....?!
Hazrat Abbas (A.S)
started negotiations with them and they accepted to
postpone and delay the
attack until the next day. And finally, the next
day (Ashura) arrived. Omar Ibn Saad commenced
the attack and war with thirty thousand fully armed warriors. And the army
of Imam Hussein (A.S) with 32 mounted fighters on horsebacks and 40
infantry man on foot bravely and courageously stood and fought against them.
They killed the enemies of the Almighty and were killed and attained Shahadat
in the path of the Almighty and in the love of their holy Imams. Any one
from amongst the followers of Imam (A.S) who would attain martyrdom, his
empty place could be seen and felt (due to their small number) but a fighter
from the army of Yazid who would be killed, immediately another
fighter would fill his position.
War continued till the
time all the followers of Imam Hussain had attained Shahadat. Now, it was
the turn of the family of Imam Hussain (A.S) to confront the enemy. The
first one who set foot on the battle field was his elder son, Hazrat Ali
Akbar. And after him, his other children and the childrens of Imam Ali (A.S),
Imam Hasan (A.S), Jafar Tayyar and Aqil went towards the battle
field. After waging a relentless and courageous attack, they drank the sweet
honey of Shahadat.
Hazrat Abbas Ibn Ali,
in his search for bringing war from the banks of Furat was attacked by the
enemy. The chivalrous son of Imam Ali (A.S) attained martyrdom in the
defense of his holy Imam in a manner where the history of mankind can not
perceive nor think about it.
He was martyred in an
innocent and pathetic condition.
The most critical and
sensitive moments of Ashura was when the beloved son of Hazrat Zahra (A.S)
and the heart of the holy Ptophet (S.A) i.e. Imam Hussain (A.S) was all
alone in the battle field with no companion and follower remaining. The
wicked enemy was attacking him from all the four sides ....
Hajjaj Ibn Abdullah who
was present in the battle field narrates thus, " By the Almighty, I had
never seen a person who had lost his childrens, loved ones, followers and
companions, but like him (Imam) was standing firm with an ease heart. By the
Almighty, neither before him nor after him, I had seen any body as his like.
When he would attack, then all the enemy soldiers on foot would run away in
the same manner as the kids of goat runs away when being attacked by a
He ( Hajjaj Ibn
Abdullah ) continues , " By the Almighty , it was in this
state that Hazrat
Zainab, the daughter of Hazrat Zahra (A.S) reached towards the holy Imam.
.... At this time, Omar
Ibn Saad came towards Imam Hussain (A.S). Hazrat Zainab (A.S) told him:
" Is Abu Abdullah being killed and you are just looking?".
He ( Hajjaj Ibn
Abdullah) said , " I am seeing the tears of the (wicked)
Omar which is flowing
from his two eyes and passing from his beard. And he turned his face from
It has been narrated
that Imam Hussain (A.S) had six or nine or ten
children. From amongst
them, Hazrat Ali Akbar and Abdullah (Hazrat Ali Asghar) attained
Shahadat and Imam Sajjad (A.S) became the Fourth Imam of the Shiites.
The Holy Prophet (S.A)
1 _ Hussain is from me
and I am from Hussain. The Almighty likes and loves one who loves and likes
2 _ The one who like to
see the most beloved person on this earth who is
most liked and loved by
the heavenly inhabitants, then he should see Hussain (A.S).